Takahashi passed AKB48's 12th generation auditions on 20 February 2011. In March 2012, she was promoted to Team 4, but was transferred to Team A in August 2012. In February 2014, during the AKB48 12th Anniversary Shuffle, it was announced Takahashi would be transferred to Team B. In March 2015 during the, it was announced Takahashi would be transferred to Team 4. In December 2017, duringAKB48 12th Anniversary Shuffle, Takahashi was transferred to Team B. Takahashi Juri is the captain of AKB48's Team B.
In the group's general elections in 2014, Takahashi ranked for the first time at 28th position. In 2015, she ranked at 25th position. In 2016, she ranked at 15th, making it the first time she entered the Senbatsu. In 2017, she ranked at 11th place. In 2018, she ranked at 12th place. In 2018, she participated in Produce 48 and got B as her initial grade during the first evaluation. Her "NEKKOYA" re-evaluation upgraded her to A class. She performed "Short Hair" by AOA with AKB48 teammate Kojima Mako for the first evaluation, "Ddu-Du Ddu-Du" by BlackPink alongside Miyawaki Sakura and Murakawa Bibian (both members of HKT48) for the position evaluation, and "I AM" for the concept evaluation. She made it to the final episode, in which she performed "Suki ni Nacchau darou?" (produced by AKB48's founder Akimoto Yasushi) and ranked #16, failing to debut with the top #12 winners of the show.
On 4 March 2019, Takahashi announced her decision to graduate from AKB48 to debut in South Korea. In the same report, she revealed she had signed an exclusive contract with the South Korean label Woollim Entertainment.