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DottDivine

THX JPA ^_^
dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 5 years ago. He owns like 1,429 Jpops and was last seen here about 19 hours ago

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  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #36 - Give and Recieve

    Posted on 31 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 92 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

    Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

    To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

    ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

    UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
    SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar pe...

    Read more (1019 words more)

    Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

    To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

    ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

    UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
    SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar person and people considered socially superior

    Depending on the direction of the "give" and "recieve" you'll have to use different verbs

    To give

    In japanese there are 3 verbs that mean "to give": AGERU - KURERU - YARU

    Ageru

    This verb is used when the direction of "give" is toward right:

    ME gives to Uchi and Soto
    Uchi gives to Uchi and Soto
    Soto gives to Soto

    The structure is simple:

    X wa Y ni N o ageru

    X is the person who gives
    Y is the person who recieves
    N is the thing given

    So the meaning is simply: "X gives N to Y"

    私は父にネクタイをあげよう
    watashi wa chichi ni nekutai o ageyou
    I'll give a necktie to my father

    父は隣の人に松をあげた
    chichi wa tonari no hito ni matsu o ageta
    My father gave a pine to the neighbour

    田中さんは山田さんに切手をあげた
    tanaka-san wa yamada-san ni kitte o ageta
    Tanaka gave a stamp to Yamada

    "ageru" has a humble form "sashiageru". This is part of the so called "keigo" that is the japanese honorific way of talking. When you talk with a person that is considered superior, you have to use keigo to show him respect.
    "sashiageru" is used when the person who recieve is superior to the person who gives.

    弟は先生に絵をさしあげました
    otouto wa sensei ni e o sashiagemashita
    My younger brother gave a draw to the teacher

    Kureru

    Kureru is used when the direction of giving goes toward left:

    Soto gives to Uchi or Me
    Uchi gives to Me

    As you may notice, when the 2 persons are part of the same group "ageru" is used.

    The structure is the same:

    X wa Y ni N o kureru

    小島さん妹に劇の切符をくれた
    kojima-san imouto ni geki no kippu o kureta
    Mr.Kojima gave a ticket for the theater to my younger sister

    妹はその切符を私にくれた
    imouto wa sono kippu o watashi ni kureta
    My younger sister gave that ticket to me

    Also "kureru" has its humble form "kudasaru".
    Pay attention: "kudasaru" is used when the person who GIVES is superior to the the person who recieve.

    先生は子供におもちゃをくださった
    sensei wa kodomo ni omocha kudasatta
    The teacher gave a toy to my son

    Yaru

    Yaru is used only when:

    -the person who recieves is clearly inferior
    -the person who recieves is an animal
    -among male friends

    妹にスカートをやる
    imouto ni sukaato o yaru
    I'll give a skirt to my younger sister

    This is just a little different from "imouto ni sukaato o ageru". It implies that "the younger sister" is "inferior".

    お母さん、ねこにごはんをやってね
    okaasan, neko ni gohan o yatte ne
    Mom, feed the cat ok? (lit. give the food to the cat)

    僕は井上にあの本をやった
    boku wa inoue ni ano hon o yatta
    I gave that book to Inoue

    To recieve

    There is only one verb that means "to recieve": "morau"

    Morau

    The direction of recieving goes toward left:

    Me recieves from Uchi or Soto
    Uchi recieves from Uchi or Soto
    Soto recieves from Soto

    If Soto or Uchi recieve something from Me, you can't use "morau" but you have to invert the sentence and use ageru.

    The structure is:

    Y wa N ni/kara N o morau

    Y is the person who recieve
    X is the person who gives
    N is the things recieved

    The meaning is simply: "Y recieve N from X"

    Obviously, it's just the opposite of ageru/kureru/yaru

    弟は父からおもちゃをもらった
    otouto wa chichi kara omocha o moratta
    My younger brother recieved a toy from dad

    まりこさんはみずきさんに本をもらったそうだ
    mariko-san wa mizuki-san ni hon o moratta souda
    It seems that Mariko recieved a book from Mizuki

    If "X" is an organization like a "company" or "school", you can use only "kara" and not "ni"

    会社から野球の切符をもらった
    kaisha kara yakyuu no kippu o moratta
    I recieved a ticket for baseball from the company

    Also "morau" has a humble form "itadaku".
    It's used when who recieves is inferior.

    部長から写真をいただきました
    buchou kara shashin o itadakimashita
    I recieved a photo from the boss

    V-te Ageru/Kureru/Yaru/Morau

    The same system of giving and recieving is used when someone do something from someone else and viceversa.
    In fact, ageru, kureru, yaru and morau haven't only the material meaning of £give" and "recieve" and when they are used with "V-te" they mean "to do something for someone"

    "Y" used in the previous examples is the person who takes advantage from the action done by "X"

    母は着物をもってくれました
    haha wa kimono o motte kuremashita
    My mother made a kimono for me

    その仕事を手伝ってあげましょうか
    sono shigoto o tetsudatte agemashou ka
    Do you want that i help you with that work?

    when X and Y are "watashi" and "anata" they are often omitted cause it's clear from the context.

    店員はプレゼントをきれいに包んでくれた
    ten'in wa purezento o kirei ni tsutsunde kureta
    The clerk wrapped the present in a nice way (for me)

    ねこの背中を撫でてやりました
    neko no senaka o nadete yarimashita
    I patted on the cat's back

    きのう先生から彼に離したいただいた
    kinou sensei kara kare ni hanashite itadaita
    Yesterday, the teacher talked to him (for me)

    The last sentence shows how it's not that easy to use this kind of sentences.
    In english the subject is "teacher" cause "teacher" is the one who "talk to him".
    But using "V-te morau" you want to point out that the teacher is doing you a favour or you would have simply said "sensei wa kare ni hanashimashita".
    While with the sentence you are saying:
    sensei kara [..] itadaita ---> I received (a favour) from the teacher
    which favour?
    kare ni hanashite --> to talk to him · close

      Comment
    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #35 - If clauses (part 2)

      Posted on 26 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 105 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

      So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
      We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

      V-tara

      V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
      With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
      With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

      V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followe...

      Read more (1033 words more)

      So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
      We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

      V-tara

      V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
      With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
      With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

      V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followed by an apodosis expressing an opinion, advice, request, volitive or a guess.
      But it hasn't the same meaning of "nara".
      In fact, V-tara has the meaning of "when..." and not only "if..". Obviously, the clause with "when" express a condition that has to happen before the action in the principal clause.

      大阪に着いたら手紙を書いてください
      oosaka ni tsuitara tegami o kaite kudasai
      When you arrive in Osaka, write me a letter please

      車が治ったら山に行こう
      kuruma ga naottara yama ni ikou
      when (if) the car will be repaired, we'll go to the mountain

      It also have the meaning of "If, by chance, it happens that.."

      彼に見られたら恥ずかしい
      kare ni miraretara hazukashii
      It's emberrassing to be seen with him (If it happens that i'm seen with him, it's embarrassing)

      時間があったら映画を見に行こう
      jikan ga attara eiga o mi ni ikou
      If there is time, let's go to see a movie

      寒かったら大変だ
      samukattara taihen da
      If it's cold, it's troublesome

      私だったらそんなこはしない
      watashi dattara sonna koto wa shinai
      If it was me, i wouldn't do it

      Differences between V-ba, nara and V-tara

      Before talking about "to" that has it's particular use.. let's see the differences between these 3 ways to express a conditional period since they are similar.

      Temporal relation between protasis (P) and apodosis (A)

      Let's see this 3 sentences:

      ---------P----------------------------------A----------
      1)nihon e ikeba--------------sushi ga taberareru
      2)nihon e iku nara-----------sushi ga taberareru
      3)nihon e ittara--------------sushi ga taberareru

      Only V-tara tell that (P) happens before (A), so sentence 3 is "When you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi" "Once you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi"
      In sentence 1 and 2 (P) may happens both before or after (A).. so the translation is more hypothetical "If you go to Japan, you can eat sushi"
      The only difference is that with V-ba, (P) usually happens before (A), while with "nara" it may be both.
      Let's see other 3 examples to explain it:

      -----------P----------------------------------A---------
      1)nihon e ikeba-------------nihongo ga benkyou dekiru
      2)nihon e iku nara----------nihongo o oshiete ageyou
      3)nihon e ittara-------------nihongo o oshiete morainasai

      Again, in sentence 3 (P) happens before (A) "Since you have been in Japan, teach me japanese"
      In sentence 1, (P) happens before (A) "If you go to Japan, you can study Japanese" (there, in Japan)
      In sentence 2, (P) may happens both before or after (A) "If/When you go to Japan, teach me japanese". The sentence is good both if you ask to be teached japanese before he goes to Japan or once he is in Japan.
      Anyway, talking about temporal relation, you can consider V-ba and "nara" as almost the same thing.

      General condition vs Specific condition

      V-ba is used for general condition that has a consequence that usually happens. "If you... it always happens that.."
      While nara and V-tara are used for specific condition, single events. "When you... it happened that..."

      suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuku --> If you switch on, the radio turns on (normal event, it always happens)
      suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuita --> Every time i switched on, the radio turned on
      suicchi o hinettara rajio ga tsuita --> When i switched on, the radio turned on (you are describing the single event)

      Restriction depending of the kind of sentence in the apodosis

      V-ba is the one that expresses objectivity the most, so is usually not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a request, volitive, exhortative, imperative, a guess or prohibition.
      In that case use nara or V-tara.

      to

      "to" is used for natural events that happen regularly, habits, math and scientific rules, so the apodosis always expresses a natural and logic consequence.

      春になると花が咲きます
      haru ni naru to hana ga sakimasu
      When spring comes, flowers bloom

      3に2を足すと5になる
      3 ni 2 o tasu to 5 ni naru
      If you add 2 to 3, it becomes 5 (or simply 3+2=5 :D)

      雨が降るとここはよく洪水になる
      ame ga furu to koko wa yoku kouzui ni naru
      When it rains, this place is often flooded

      私が行くといつも彼女はケーキを作れる
      watashi ga iku to itsumo kanojo wa keeki o tsukureru
      When i go, she always make me a cake

      Just as V-ba, "to" is not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a guess, request, volitive etc...

      haru ni naru to hana o uemasu --> when spring comes flowers are planted
      haru ni naru uemashou---> is WRONG!

      To say "when spring comes, let's plant flowers", you have to use nara or V-tara. In this case V-tara is probably better.
      haru ni nattara uemashou --> When spring will arrive, let's plant flowers

      Real hypothesis

      When the condition is no more than a simple hypothesis, V-ba, nara, V-tara and to are used with hypothetical adverbs "moshi" or "mangaichi". In this case they must always be translated with "If.."

      もし彼が家にいれば会えます
      moshi kare ga ie ni ireba aemasu
      If he is at home, you can meet him

      万が一彼が来なかったらどうしよう
      mangaichi kare ga konakattara doushiyou
      If by chance he doesn't come, what would i do?

      もしインドにも行くならおみやげを買ってきてください
      moshi indo ni mo iku nara omiyage o katte kite kudasai
      If you go in India too, buy me a present please

      万が一ガラスが割れるとけがをしますよ
      mangaichi garasu ga wareru to kega o shimasu yo
      If the glass breaks, you'll get injured
      Unrealizable hypothesis

      This is an hypothesis on an event that can't be realized, so the action in the apodosis won't happen. The apodosis often ends with "noni"

      もっと安ければあのドレスを買うのに
      motto yasukereba ano doresu o kau noni
      If it was cheaper, I would buy that dress

      But the hypothesis is not true, cause actually that dress is not cheaper, so you won't buy it

      皆がよく働いたらもっと早く終わっただろうのに
      mina ga yoku hataraitara motto hayaku owatta darou noni
      If everyone had worked better, we would have probably finished earlier

      あしたでないならその会に行けるのに
      ashita de nai nara sono kai ni ikeru noni
      If it wasn't tomorrow, i could go to the meeting · close

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      • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #34 - If clauses

        Posted on 23 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 170 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

        The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
        Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

        CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
        If .......... + then.....

        B5 + ba

        This represents the conditional forms...

        Read more (741 words more)

        The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
        Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

        CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
        If .......... + then.....

        B5 + ba

        This represents the conditional forms of verbs and adjectives. I will simply call it V-ba from now on.
        The verbs in V-Ba is used in the protasis.

        If the V-ba verb is an "action verb", you can't use volitive, exhortative, imperative, request, prohibition or advice in the apodosis.

        この薬を飲めば、治りますよ
        kono kusuri o nomeba naorimasu yo
        If you take this medicine, you'll get well

        この大学を出れば、いい会社に入れる
        kono daigaku o dereba ii kaisha ni haireru
        If i graduate from this university, I'll enter in a good company

        With stative verbs or adjective there are no restriction for the verb of the apodosis

        高くなければ会なさい
        takakunakereba kai nasai
        If it's not expensive, buy it

        日本へ行きたければ日本語を習ったほうがいいですよ
        nihon e ikitakereba nihongo o natta houga ii desu yo
        If you want to go to Japan, you better learn japanese

        B5+ba is the only form of V-ba, but even if V-ba hasn't a past form.. it can describe a past event if the verb of the apodosis is in past tense.
        In this case it describe an HABITUAL action and NOT a single action (to describe a single action in a past conditional period you have to use "tara".. one of the other conditional forms)

        あの人に頼めば必ず教えてくれた
        ano hito ni tanomeba kanarazu oshiete kureta
        If i asked that man, he always answered

        Compare it with this sentence with "tara":

        あの人に頼んだらすぐ教えてくれた
        ano hito ni tanondara sugu oshiete kureta
        WHEN i asked him, he immediately answered

        Nara

        Verbs (B4) + nara
        I-Adjectives (B4) + nara
        Na-Adjectives (root) + nara
        Nouns + nara

        When "nara" is used with a verb at present tense, it expresses a contitional clause on present or future event. This kind of protasis is usually followed by an apodosis that expresses a judgement, a guess, volitive or the opinion of the talker. It's rarely used with objective apodosis. You can consider "nara" complementary to V-ba in this case. When you can't use V-ba, you can use "nara".
        The subject of the protasis is usually at 2nd or 3rd person.

        あすいい天気なら行こう
        asu ii tenki nara ikou
        if tomorrow the weather is good, i'll go

        いい天気ではないなら行くまい
        ii tenki dewanai nara ikumai
        If the weather is not good, i won't go

        あなたが歌うなら私も歌います
        anata ga utau nara watashi mo utaimasu
        If you sing, I'll sing too

        日本へ行くなら日本語を勉強しておきなさい
        nihon e iku nara nihongo o benkyou shite okinasai
        If you go to Japan, study japanese
        Since you go to Japan, study japanese (first)

        ケーキを作るなら私にも一切れください
        keeki o tsukuru nara watashi ni mo ichi kire kudasai
        If (Since) you make a cake, give a piece to me too

        Used with verbs in past tense, it expresses a conditional clause on a past event that it's surely already happened. So it means "Since...., then.."

        ローマへ行ったならバチカンへも行ったでしょう
        rooma e itta nara bachikan e mo itta deshou
        Since you have been in Rome, you probably visited Vatican too

        彼に会ったならそのことを知っている
        kare ni atta nara sono koto o shitte iru
        Since you met him, you should know that thing

        "nara" can be used in conditional period with apodosis that expresses an advice/opinion.
        In this case the sentence is translated "If you want to.. then (i advice you to)..."

        テレビを買うならあの店が安いですよ
        terebi o kau nara ano mise ga yasui desu yo
        If you want to buy a TV, that store has low prices (--> so i advice you to go there)

        アメリカへ行くならぜひ ニューヨークへ行きなさい
        amerika e iku nara zehi nyuuyouku e ikinasai
        If you go to USA, you absolutely have to go to New York

        As we saw before, nara doesn't express only hypothesis but also verified/already happened events. So it doesn't only mean "if.." but also "Since..".
        Japanese has other expressions that can be used instead of "nara" when it means "Since.."

        They are: to suruto, to shitara, to sureba, to naruto.

        They are used at the end of the protasis with verbs in B3, and they are followed by the principal clauses

        彼は来ないとすると奥さんも来ないだろう
        kare wa konai to suruto okusan mo konai darou
        Since he doesn't come, his wife won't probably come too

        きのう彼は酒を飲みすぎたとなると今日頭がいたい
        kinou kare wa sake o nomi sugita to naruto kyou atama ga itai
        Since he drank too much yesterday, today he has headache

        Next lesson: the other 2 conditional forms: "tara" and "to" · close

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        • Let's Jap Together - Les. #33 - Guess/Uncert. - souda / kamo shirenai / hazu da

          Posted on 21 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 143 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

          After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

          souda / soudesu

          Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
          Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

          With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
          But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
          It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
          Let's look at this example:

          kono ringo wa oishi souda-...

          Read more (778 words more)

          After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

          souda / soudesu

          Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
          Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

          With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
          But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
          It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
          Let's look at this example:

          kono ringo wa oishi souda---> this apple looks delicious
          kono ringo wa ama souda---> this apple looks sweet
          kono ringo wa mazu souda---> this apple looks bad tasting
          kono ringo wa furu souda---> this apple looks old

          This sentence are all correct and they are made looking at the apple. The look of the apple makes the talker think that the apple may be "delicious" "sweet" "bad tasting" "old"

          You can't use souda with adjectives like "akai" (red) "ookii" (big) "marui" (rounded).. cause you are looking at the apple, so you can tell if it's red, big or rounded... you are not guessing.

          If it happens that you are far from the apple and you have to say "That apples seems red", you have to use youda or rashii --> "ano ringo wa akai youda"/"ano ringo wa akai rashii"

          Souda can also be used to make a guess on a future events that it seems they are going to happen soon. Also this guess is based on ocular observation.

          今にも雨が降りそうだ
          ima ni mo ame ga furi souda
          It looks like it's gonna rain soon

          このバスは止まりそうです
          kno basu wa tomari soudesu
          It seems that this bus is going to stop

          With potential verbs souda means "it looks like he can..." "it seems he can.."

          この車はまだ使えそうだ
          kono kuruma wa mada tsukae souda
          It looks like this car can still be used

          あの会社には入れそうではない
          ano kaisha ni wa haire soudewanai
          It seems i can't enter in that company

          Souda can be used in an attributive form and an adverbial form.
          The attributive form is "souna" while the adverbial is "souni"

          彼は高そうな車を買った
          kare wa taka souna kuruma o katta
          he bought a car that looks expensive

          彼はうれしそうに話した
          kare wa ureshi souni hanashita
          he spoke happily (he spoke in a way that looked happy)

          Now compre these sentences:

          ima ni mo ame ga furi souda --> It looks like is going to rain soon
          ame ga futte iru youda --> It seems it's raining (told by someone in direct contact with the rain)
          nihon de wa rokugatsu ni ame ga yoku furu youda (rashii) --> it seems that (i heard that) in japan it rains a lot on June
          tabun ashita ame ga furu darou --> It will probably rain tomorrow (subjective guess)

          kamo shirenai / kamo shiremasen

          Verbs: B4 + kamo shirenai
          I-Adjectives: B4 + kamo shirenai
          Na-Adjectives: Root + kamo shirenai
          Nouns: N + kamo shirenai

          With kamo shirenai you make a guess that is the most unsure among all the way we have seen. Who talks is not sure at all of what he is saying.

          私はいくかもしれないし行かないかもしれない
          watashi wa iku kamo shirenai shi ikanai kamo shirenai
          Maybe i'll go, maybe i won't go

          彼は音楽家かもしれない
          kare wa ongaguka kamo shirenai
          He may be a musician (but i'm not sure)

          Compare these sentences:

          kare wa kunai kamo shirenai --> Perhaps he won't come (i'm not sure)
          kare wa kunai darou --> He'll probably won't come
          kare wa kunai rashii --> I heard he won't come
          kare wa kunai youda --> It seems he won't come

          hazu da/desu

          Verbs: B4 + hazu da
          Adjectives: B4 + hazu da
          Nouns: N no hazu da

          This form means "It's supposed to.."
          In fact this is not normal guess, we are talking about something that we expect to happen or it should have already happened.

          彼は三時に駅に着くはずだ
          kare wa sanji ni eki ni tsuku hazu da
          He is supposed to arrive at the station at 3 o'clock

          授業はもう終わったはずだ
          jugyou wa mou owatta hazu da
          The lesson should have already finished

          The negative form of "hazu da" is "hazu ga (wa) nai"and it means "It's not possible that.."

          彼がそんなことを言うはずがない
          kare wa sonna koto o iu hazu ga nai
          It's not possible that he says something like that

          -ni chigai nai / -ni kimatte iru

          Even if this forms are still a guess, the talker is really sure of what he is saying. It means "No doubt that.." "It must..." "Surely..."

          彼が選ばれるにちがいない
          kare ga erabareru ni chigai nai
          No doubt that he will be elected

          そんなことをしたら先に叱られるにきまっている
          sonna koto o shitara sensei ni shikarareru ni kimatte iru
          If you do something like that, you'll surely be scolded by the teacher · close

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          • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #32 - Guess/Uncertainty - rashii /youda

            Posted on 17 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 172 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

            Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

            rashii

            rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
            So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
            To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
            Just as darou/deshou, you have to ad...

            Read more (304 words more)

            Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

            rashii

            rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
            So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
            To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
            Just as darou/deshou, you have to add it at the end of the sentence to transform an affermative sentence into a guess.

            Verbs: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
            I-Adjectives: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
            Na-Adjectives: root + rashii/rashii desu
            Nouns: N+ rashii/rashii desu

            The negative guess can be made by both conjugating the verb of the sentence or conjugating rashii (rashikunai).


            あに人は山中さんらしい
            ano hito wa yamanaka-san rashii
            That man seems Yamanaka-san

            どろぼうもう出て行ったらしく、物音が止めた
            dorobou wa mou dete itta rashiku, monooto ga yameta
            It looks like the robber is already gone, the noises stopped

            あした鉄道はストで止まるらしいです
            ashita tetsudou wa suto de tomaru rashii desu
            I heard that the trains will stop tomorrow due to strike

            あの人は病気らしい
            ano hito wa byouki rashii
            As far as i know, that man is sick

            彼はみずきと結婚しないらしい
            kare wa mizuki to kekkon shinai rashii
            I heard that he won't marry Mizuki

            youda/youdesu

            Verbs: B4 + youda/youdesu
            I-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
            Na-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
            Nouns: N no youda/youdesu

            youda is used, just like rashii, to make a guessing with some foundation due to observation but it also add a psychological participation.
            He can be translated as "It seems.." "As far as i know.."

            父はもう帰ってきたようだ
            chichi wa mou kaette kita youda
            It seems my father is already returned

            雨が降っているようだった
            ame ga futte iru youdatta
            It seemed it was raining

            彼はダンススクールに通っているようだ
            kare wa dansu sukuuru ni kayotte iru youda
            As far as i know, he is attending a dance school

            火はもう消えたようです
            hi wa mou kieta youdesu
            It seems that the fire is already extinguished

            youda is also used to express subjective impressions and for guessing on your own behaviour

            その話は以前どこかで聞いたようだ
            sono hanashi wa izen dokoka de kiita youda
            I think i already heard this story somewhere [以前-->izen-->previously]

            私はま違っていたようだ
            watashi wa machigatte ita youda
            It seems i was wrong · close

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            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #31 - Guess/Uncertainty - darou/deshou

              Posted on 15 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 86 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

              In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
              The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

              Darou / Deshou

              This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
              The...

              Read more (673 words more)

              In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
              The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

              Darou / Deshou

              This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
              The meaning is "I think that.." "Maybe..." "Perhaps.." "It may/might..."
              The structure is simple, you just have to add darou/deshou at the end of a sentence and they'll transform the affermative sentence into a guess.

              Verbs: B3 + darou/deshou
              I-Adj: B3 + darou/deshou
              Na-Adj: root + darou/deshou
              N: N + darou/deshou

              おそらく彼は今晩行くだろう
              osoraku kare wa konban iku darou
              He'll probably go tonight

              たぶん田中さんは映画に行かないだろう
              tabun tanaka-san wa eiga ni ikanai darou
              I think Tanaka-san doesn't go to the movies

              あの建物はたぶん学校だろう
              ano tatemono wa tabun gakkou darou
              That building is probably a school

              --The guess can also be done on past events:

              母はもう東京についたでしょう
              haha wa mou toukyou ni tsuita deshou
              I think my mother is already arrived in Tokyo

              --The guessing can be made involving the interlocutor using final particles as "ka" "ne" "yo" and "sa"
              With "ka" we make a guess asking for an aswer from the interlocutor
              With "ne" we make a guess asking for a confirmation from the interlocutor
              With "yo" and "sa" we are expressing the fact that even if it's a guessing we are confident on what we are saying.

              kare wa konban kuru deshou ka---> maybe he'll come tonight?
              kare wa konban kuru deshou ne---> maybe he'll come tonight, isn't it?
              kare wa konban kuru darou yo---> I'm quite sure he'll come tonight

              When the guessing is expressed in interrogative form, darou/deshou are used instead of the other way to express uncertainty. The guessing can be direct to an interlocutor or also to yourself.

              彼はまだあそこに住んでいるでしょうか
              kare wa mada asoko ni sunde iru deshou ka
              Do you know if he still live there?

              あしたも雪だろうか
              ashita mo yuki darou ka
              I wonder if it'll snow tomorrow too

              --When the guessing is made by a third person you have to use -to omotte iru (without darou/deshou)

              彼は私が頭がいいと思っている
              kare wa watashi ga atama ga ii to omotte iru
              He thinks I'm smart

              When the guessing was made in the past you have to use -to omotta

              私は彼がもう帰ってこたいだろうと思った
              watashi wa kare ga mou kaette konai darou to omotta
              I thought that he would have never come back

              --darou/deshou can be used in a conversation when who talks asks for a confirmation directly to the interlocutor with the meaning of "isn't it?"

              君はその本を彼にもう返しただろう
              kimi wa sono hon wo kare ni mou kaeshita darou
              You have probably already returned that book, isn't it?

              ほら、このセーターいいでしょう
              hora, kono seetaa ii deshou
              look, this sweater is nice, isn't it?

              --this structure has also an honorary form:

              Verbs: B2+ mashou/masudeshou
              Na-Adj: root + de arimashou
              N: N + de gozaimashou

              便利だから学生に喜ばれましょう
              benri da kare gakusei ni yorokobaremashou
              Since it's useful, it will probably be appreciated by the students

              たくさんのお金が必要でありましょう
              takusan no okane ga hitsuyou de arimashou
              A lot of money will probably be necessary [必要な-->hitsuyouna-->necessary]

              Literary expressions

              V-Godan: B1a + u
              Other verbs: B1 + you
              I-Adj: B1(-karo) + u
              Na-Adj: root + dearou
              N: N + dearou

              Negative: B3 + mai
              Emphatic Negative: B2 + wa shimai

              大臣は辞任するこのになろう
              daijin wa jinin suru koto ni narou
              I think the minister will resign [大臣-->daijin-->minister 辞任する-->jinin suru--> to resign]

              これは多くの反論が出てこよう
              kore wa ooku no hanron ga dete koyou
              About that, many opinion will probably come out [出て来る-->dete kuru-->To come out]

              コートがなければさぞ寒かろう
              kooto ga nakereba sazo samukarou
              If he doesn't have the coat, i'm sure he'll be cold [さぞ-->sazo-->surely]

              すぐにその問題を解決することが必要であろう
              sugu ni sono mondai o kaiketsu suru koto ga hitsuyou dearou
              It will probably be necessary to solve this problem immediately

              ドルはもうこれ以上下がるまい
              doru wa mou kore ijou sagarumai
              I don't think the dollar will go down anymore
              · close

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              • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #30 - Causative

                Posted on 6 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 125 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

                E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

                V-Saseru

                V. Godan: B1+seru
                V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
                kuru: kosaseru
                suru: saseru

                Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

                kaku--->kakaseru
                iu--->iwaseru
                hanasu--->hanasaseru
                yomu--->yomaseru
                oyogu--->oyogaseru

                deru--->desaseru
                okiru--->okisaseru

                Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

                yomu-->...

                Read more (944 words more)

                Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

                E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

                V-Saseru

                V. Godan: B1+seru
                V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
                kuru: kosaseru
                suru: saseru

                Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

                kaku--->kakaseru
                iu--->iwaseru
                hanasu--->hanasaseru
                yomu--->yomaseru
                oyogu--->oyogaseru

                deru--->desaseru
                okiru--->okisaseru

                Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

                yomu-->read
                yomaseru--> make (someone) read
                yomasemasu--> make (someone) read (polite)
                yomasenai--> don't make (someone) read
                yomasemasen--> don't make (someone) read (polite)
                yomaseta--> made (someone) read
                yomasemashita--> made (someone) read (polite)
                yomasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) read
                yomasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) read
                yomasete--> -te form

                taberu--> eat
                tabesaseru--> make (someone) eat
                tabesasemasu--> make (someone) eat (polite)
                tabesasenai--> don't make (someone) eat
                tabesasemasen--> don't make (someone) eat (polite)
                tabesaseta--> made (someone) eat
                tabesasemashita--> made (someone) eat (polite)
                tabesasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) eat
                tabesasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) eat (polite)
                tabesasete--> -te form

                X wa Y ni N o V-Saseru ---> X make Y do N

                This is the structure of the causative sentence with transitive verbs

                母は妹に皿を洗わせた
                haha wa imouto ni sara o arawaseta
                My mother made my younger sister wash the dishes [皿-->sara-->dishes 洗う-->arau-->to wash]

                彼女に田中さんを飛行場まで送らせよう
                kanojo ni tanaka san o hikoujou made okuraseyou
                I'll make her accompany tanaka-san till the airport [飛行場-->hikoujou-->airport 送る-->okuru-->to send]

                The more complicated the sentence becomes, the most difficult is to make a literal translation. The translation of the last sentence in fact it's not. Sometime, you only have to understand the meaning and translate accordingly.

                X wa Y ni/o V-Saseru

                This is the structure of the causative sentence with intransitive verbs

                社長は彼に/をイタリアへ行かせた
                shachou wa kare ni/o itaria e ikaseta
                The president made him go to Italy

                どうして子供に/をプルで泳がせないのですか
                doushite kodomo ni/o puru de oyogasenai no desuka
                Why don't you make the kids swim in the pool?

                The japanese causative express the idea of "make someone do", "push someone to do" but also the idea of "allow someone to do" "leave someone to do"

                When it has the first meaning, it's like someone force someone else to do something. That's why is possibile, when "X" get an advantange by making "Y" doing something, to use the weakened form "-te morau"
                "Morau" means "to recieve" but as i already said, in japanese "give/receive" are quite complicate... and we'll see them later.. for the moment just remember this option and look at this example:

                私は田中さんに手紙を読ませた
                watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yomaseta
                I made tanaka read the letter

                私は田中さんに手紙を読んでもらった
                watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yonde moratta
                I asked tanaka to read the letter for me

                The second one is way more kind.

                In the next sentences the causative has the second meaning:

                もうおとななのだから、好きなようにさせましょう
                mou otona nano dakara, sukina youni sasemashou
                Since he is an adult already, let's leave him do what he likes

                Translating the causative as "make him do what he likes" is a contradiction.. so it's better "leave him do".. cause this is the true meaning.

                子供をここで遊ばせないでください
                kodomo o koko de asobasenaide kudasai
                Please, don't leave the kids play here

                In this sentence, "don't make the children play here" would be still acceptable, but you understand that it's not that you "push" the kids to play there.. it's more like you "leave" the kids play there.

                How to pick "ni" or "o"

                - If there is another complement marked with "ni" use "o" and viceversa
                - If Y is inanimate use "o"
                mizu o koraseru (make the water freeze)
                - If the verbs express a psycological reaction use "o"
                sensei o komaraseru (make the sensei embarassed)
                gakusei o warawaseru (make the students laugh)

                Intransitive verbs that have a transitive version

                Do you remember those intransitive verbs that also have a corresponding transitive version? no? I talked about them in lesson #16 ^^
                Well, for those verbs, the causative form of the intransitive verbs has similar meaning of the transitive verb. So the transitive verb is generally used.

                neru-->to sleep
                nekasu--> to put to sleep

                kodomo ga neru ---> the kid sleeps
                kodomo o neraseru ---> I make the kid sleep (causative of neru)
                kodomo o nekasu ---> I put the kid to sleep

                noru--> to get on
                noseru--> to make someone get on

                haha ga kisha ni noru ---> my mother get on the train
                haha o kisha ni noraseru --->I make my mother get on the train (causative of noru)
                haha o kisha ni noseru ---> I make my mother get on the train

                In both cases, the last sentence is used, even if the meaning may be slightly different

                V-sasu

                This is another way to make a verb causative. But this is used only in oral japanese, it's considered really colloquial.

                V. Godan: B1+su
                V. Ichidan: B1+sasu
                kuru: kosasu
                suru: sasu

                Some examples:

                kaku--->kakasu
                iu--->iwasu
                hanasu--->hanasasu
                yomu--->yomasu
                oyogu--->oyogasu

                deru--->desasu
                okiru--->okisasu

                This causative form is conjugated like a godan verb endin in -su.
                I don't conjugate it right now cause the lesson is already sooo long :D

                All what i said for V-saseru is still valid for V-sasu too.. so i just make a pair of examples.

                彼に本当のことを言わしましょう
                kare ni hontou no koto o iwashimashou
                Lets make him tell the truth

                彼にこれを作らしてください
                kare ni kore o tsukurashite kudasai
                Make him do this please

                · close

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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #29 - Passive

                  Posted on 4 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 73 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

                  Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

                  V-rareru

                  V. Godan: B1+reru
                  V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
                  kuru: korareru
                  suru: sareru

                  No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
                  Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
                  This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

                  Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

                  kaku--->kakar...

                  Read more (1167 words more)

                  Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

                  V-rareru

                  V. Godan: B1+reru
                  V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
                  kuru: korareru
                  suru: sareru

                  No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
                  Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
                  This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

                  Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

                  kaku--->kakareru
                  iu--->iwareru
                  yomu--->yomareru
                  kiru(to cut)--->kirareru
                  katsu--->katareru

                  taberu--->taberareru
                  kiru(to wear)--->kirareru

                  As the potential form, also the passive form of the verb can be conjugated like a normal ichidan verb in -eru.

                  yomu--> read
                  yomareru--> is read
                  yomaremasu--> is read (polite)
                  yomarenai--> isn't read
                  yomaremasen--> isn't read (polite)
                  yomareta--> was read
                  yomaremashita--> was read (polite)
                  yomarenakatta--> wasn't read
                  yomaremasen deshita--> wasn't read (polite)
                  yomarete--> -te form

                  suteru--> throw
                  suterareru--> is thrown
                  suteraremasu--> is thrown (polite)
                  suterarenai--> isn't thrown
                  suteraremasen--> isn't thrown (polite)
                  suterareta--> was thrown
                  suteraremashita--> was thrown (polite)
                  suterarenakatta--> wasn't thrown
                  suteraremasen deshita--> wasn't thrown (polite)
                  suterarete--> -te form

                  X wa Y ni/ni yotte/kara V-rareru

                  This is the structure of the passive sentence.
                  X is who is subjected to the action
                  Y is the agent complement who does the action

                  Active sentence:
                  父は兄を殴った
                  chichi wa ani o nagutta
                  My father beat my older brother (兄-->ani-->older brother 殴る-->naguru-->to beat]

                  Passive sentence:
                  兄は父に殴られた
                  ani wa chichi ni nagurareta
                  My older brother was beaten by my father

                  山田さんの財布はすりに盗まれた
                  yamada-san no saifu wa suri ni nusumareta
                  Yamada's wallet was robbed by a pickpocket [財布-->saifu-->wallet すり-->suri-->pickpocket 盗む-->nusumu-->to steal]

                  そんなことをすると先生に叱られますよ
                  sonna koto o suru to sensei ni shikararemasu yo
                  If you do something like that, you'll be scolded by the teacher [叱る-->shikaru-->to scold]

                  when to use "ni", "ni yotte" or "kara" to mark the agent complement

                  Usually "ni" is used, but there are sentences where is better to use the others.

                  If Y is a PERSON:

                  -Usually---> "ni"
                  -With "directional" verbs you can use "kara" but also "ni". With "directional" verbs I mean those verbs who express the movement in some way.. like.. "send" or "give (a present)"
                  -If there is another complement marked with "ni" in the sentence, use "ni yotte" or "kara"

                  この指輪は彼から私に送られた
                  kono yubiwa wa kare kara watashi ni okurareta
                  This ring has been given to me by him [指輪-->yubiwa-->ring 送る-->okuru-->to give]

                  これは八月に彼の妻によって書かれた
                  kore wa hachigatsu ni kare no tsuma ni yotte kakareta
                  This has been written by his wife on August [八月-->hachigatsu-->August 妻-->tsuma-->wife

                  If Y is an OBJECT:

                  -if the object is concrete --->"ni"
                  -if the object is abstract ---> "ni yotte"

                  私のねこは車にひかれた
                  watashi no neko wa kuruma ni hikareta
                  My cat has been run over by a car

                  彼は信仰によって救われた
                  kare wa shinkou ni yotte sukuwareta
                  He was saved by faith [信仰-->shinkou-->faith 救う-->sukuu-->to save]

                  When the agent is clear due to the context, the active sentence is usually used instead of the passive one. Especially if the direct object of the active sentence (that would be the subject of the passive sentence) is an inanimate things and so unable to execute an action.
                  But with historical, objective, economic or social facts/events the passive sentence is used without any problem

                  英語は多くの国で勉強されています
                  eigo wa ooku no kuni de benkyou sarete imasu
                  English is being studied in many countries [多く-->ooku-->many 国-->kuni-->country]

                  この曲はショペンによって作られました
                  kono kyoku wa shopen ni yotte tsukuraremashita
                  This music has been composed by Chopin [曲-->kyoku-->music/song]

                  *If "Y" is the author, than you have to use "ni yotte"

                  Passive to express harm, bother and annoyance

                  The japanese passive sentence can also be used to express a meaning of harm, bother or annoyance caused to the subject by the agent of the passive sentence. In this case, the passive sentence can also be used with intransitive verbs.
                  That's why it's really difficult to explain the meaning since there is nothing similar in english.. so there isn't a direct translation either..
                  Let's see few examples:

                  Active:
                  ame ga futta----> It rained
                  Passive:
                  kare wa ame ni furareta----> It rained (and he was annoyed by it)

                  Since "to rain" is an intransitive verb, the second passive sentence is impossibile to translate in english.. in this case you can translate it as if it was an active sentence, pointing out that the subject (in this case "he") was annoyed by that.

                  Active:
                  otto ga shinda----> My husband died
                  Passive:
                  otto ni shinareta----> My husband died (It's so terrible)

                  Again, it's difficult to give a translation to the passive sentence. The meaning is that I was harmed by the death of my husband, I'm not only telling a fact.

                  Active:
                  iyana kyaku ga kita----> An unwelcome guest came
                  Passive:
                  iyana kyaku ni korareta----> It happened to me that an unwelcome guest came (and it sucks)

                  Active:
                  chichi wa boku no kanojo kara no tegami o yonda ----> My father read the letter from my girlfriend
                  Passive:
                  boku no kanojo kara no tegami wa chichi ni yomareta ----> The letter from my girlfriend was read by my dad
                  Passive of harm/bother/annoyance:
                  boku wa chichi ni kanojo kara no tegami o yomareta ---> It sucks that my father read the letter from my girlfriend

                  Probably this last example is the one that can help you understanding the most since it's done with a transitive verb.. and you may see the real difference between a normal passive sentence and a this passive sentence of harm/bother/annoyance.
                  The topic of the sentence becomes the one who is annoyed by what happened.. even if he isn't who is directly subjected to the action.

                  "Jihatsu" expressions

                  Japanese has a group of expressions called "jihatsu" (naturalness).
                  These expressions are used for events, feelings or action that happens against or without human will. They are used for things that can't be controlled by men.

                  X wa (N ga) V-rareru

                  This structure is used with "sentimental" verbs:
                  kanjiru (to feel/to sense/to notice)
                  shinobu (to remember with nostalgia)
                  anzuru (to be worried/concerned)
                  shinpai suru (to be worried/concerned)
                  odoruku (to be surprised)

                  or with "thinking" verbs:
                  kangaeru (to think)
                  omou (to think)
                  omoidasu (to remember)

                  X is the person who feels/thinks
                  N is what makes X feels/thinks

                  母の健康が心配される
                  haha no kenkou ga shinpai sareru
                  I'm concerned about my mother's health

                  最近、彼が冷たく感じられる
                  saikin, kare ga tsumetaku kanjirareru
                  Recently, I feel he is cold
                  · close

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                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #28 - Potential Forms - V-eru

                    Posted on 1 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 227 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

                    In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
                    Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

                    V-eru

                    V. Godan: B5-ru
                    V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
                    kuru: korareru
                    suru: dekiru

                    An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

                    Some examples:

                    kaku--->kakeru
                    iu--->ieru
                    hanasu--->hanaseru
                    tobu--->toberu
                    yomu--->yomeru
                    oyogu--...

                    Read more (315 words more)

                    In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
                    Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

                    V-eru

                    V. Godan: B5-ru
                    V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
                    kuru: korareru
                    suru: dekiru

                    An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

                    Some examples:

                    kaku--->kakeru
                    iu--->ieru
                    hanasu--->hanaseru
                    tobu--->toberu
                    yomu--->yomeru
                    oyogu--->oyogeru

                    deru--->derareru
                    okiru--->okirareru

                    You can conjugate the potential form of the verb. To do it, consider it just like a normal Ichidan verb in -eru

                    kaku--> write
                    kakeru--> can write
                    kakemasu--> can write (polite)
                    kakenai--> can't write
                    kakemasen--> can't write (polite)
                    kaketa--> could write
                    kakemashita--> could write (polite)
                    kakenakatta--> couldn't write
                    kakemasen deshita--> couldn't write (polite)
                    kekete--> -te potential form

                    It's like you attach the various auxiliary verbs to the B5 of the godan verbs instead the normal conjugated base they need

                    deru--> exit
                    derareru--> can exit
                    deraremasu--> can exit (polite)
                    derarenai--> can't exit
                    deraremasen--> can't exit (polite)
                    derareta--> could exit
                    deraremashita--> could exit (polite)
                    derarenakatta--> couldn't exit
                    deraremasen deshita--> couldn't exit (polite)
                    derarete--> -te potential form

                    X wa A ga V-eru

                    彼はパスタが作れます
                    kare wa pasuta ga tsukuremasu
                    He can make pasta

                    妹は昔ピアノがひけました
                    imouto wa mukashi piano ga hikemashita
                    Some time ago, my younger sister could play piano [昔-->mukashi-->old days]

                    それはこの図書館で調べられる
                    sore wa kono toshokan de shiraberareru
                    You can make research about that in this library [調べる-->shiraberu-->to research]

                    私はひらがなが書けますが漢字は書けません
                    watashi wa hiragana ga kakemasu ga kanji wa kakemasen
                    I can't write hiragana but not kanji

                    彼は卵が食べられません
                    kare wa tamago ga taberaremasen
                    He can't eat eggs

                    Also V-eru may mean "it's allowed, it's not allowed" depending on the context

                    ここははだしでは入れません
                    koko wa hadashi de wa hairemasen
                    It's not allowed to enter here barefoot [はだし-->hadashi-->barefoot]

                    Lately, in Japan, they started to get the potential form of ichidan verbs just as the godan verbs with "B5+ru" instead of "B1-rareru"but it's still considered colloquial:

                    base form----------B1-rareru-----------B5-ru
                    miru------------------mirareru-----------mireru
                    kiru-------------------kirareru------------kireru
                    taberu--------------taberareru--------tabereru
                    okiru-----------------okirareru----------okireru · close

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                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #27 - Potential Forms - Dekiru

                      Posted on 30 July, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 434 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                      In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

                      X wa A ga dekiru

                      X is the person who is able to do something
                      A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
                      dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

                      彼はイタリア語ができる
                      kare wa itariago dekiru
                      he knows italian (language)

                      あなたはバイオリンができますか
                      anata wa b...

                      Read more (491 words more)

                      In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

                      X wa A ga dekiru

                      X is the person who is able to do something
                      A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
                      dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

                      彼はイタリア語ができる
                      kare wa itariago dekiru
                      he knows italian (language)

                      あなたはバイオリンができますか
                      anata wa baiorin ga dekimasuka
                      can you play the violin?

                      みずきは日本の料理ができる
                      mizuki wa nihon no ryori ga dekiru
                      Mizuki can do japanese dishes

                      私はテニスができない
                      watashi wa tenisu ga dekinai
                      i can't play tennis

                      But this structure is not only used to express the ability (or not) to do something. In some contexts it may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed"

                      今日は雨でテニスができません
                      kyou wa ame de tenisu ga dekimasen
                      I can't play tennis today due to rain

                      X wa A o Verb(B4) koto ga dekiru

                      In the previous structure, there aren't other verbs except "dekiru". Only the activity is expressed.
                      This second structure is used to express also the verb togheter with the activity.

                      彼女はピアノをひくことができます
                      kanojo wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru
                      She can play the piano [ひく-->hiku-->to play]

                      彼は片手でタイプを打つことができる
                      kare wa katate de taipu o utsu koto ga dekiru
                      He can type with one hand [片手-->katate-->with one hand タイプを打つ-->taipu o utsu-->to type]

                      母はケーキをつくることができる
                      haha wa keeki o tsukuru koto ga dekiru
                      My mother can do cakes

                      When the verb is a composed verb with "suru" (e.g. shippai suru --> to fail), you can't use this structure cause you would repeat "dekiru" twice... so you have to use the previous one.. let's see an example with the verb "unten suru"-->to drive

                      酔っぱらっていては運転ができません
                      yobbaratte ite wa unten ga dekimasen
                      You can't drive if you are drunk [yobbaratte ite--> Being drunk]

                      Also this structure may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed" depending on the context.

                      この博物館では写真をとることができません
                      kono hakubutsukan de wa shashin o toru koto ga dekimasen
                      In this museum, it's not allowed to take photos [博物館-->hakubutsukan-->museum 写真-->shashin-->photo]

                      X wa A ga wakaru

                      This structure can be used with languages with the meaning of "X understand A"

                      彼はイタリア語がわかる
                      kare wa itariago ga wakaru
                      He understands italian (language)

                      あなたは日本語がわかりますか
                      anata wa nihongo ga wakarimasuka
                      do you understand japanese?

                      はい、少しわかります
                      hai, sukoshi wakarimasu
                      Yes, i understand a bit

                      いいえ、全然わかりません
                      iie, zenzen wakarimasen
                      no, I don't understand at all

                      X wa A ga jouzu/hata/tokui/nigate desu

                      This is a particular structure whose meaning change depending on which one of those 4 words you use:

                      X wa A ga jouzu desu --> X is good at A
                      X wa A ga hata desu --> X sucks at A
                      X wa A ga tokui desu --> X is good at A that he likes
                      X wa A ga nigate desu --> X sucks at A that he doesn't like

                      彼女は刺繍がじょうずだ
                      kanojo ga shishuu ga jouzu da
                      she is good at embroidery

                      この人は数学がにがてだ
                      kono hito wa suugaku ga nigate da
                      This man sucks at math and he doesn't like it

                      In the next lesson we'll see the potential form of the verb ^^ · close

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