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DottDivine

With my nieceeeeee
dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 5 years ago. He owns like 613 Jpops and was last seen here about 9 hours ago

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Journals

  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #24 - Request

    Posted on 26 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 131 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

    In this lesson we will see how to ask people to do something without being considered rude or impolite.

    V-te kudasai

    This is the most versatile form of request. It's polite enough to be used with everyone, even the first time you meet them.

    そこで待ってください 
    soko de matte kudasai
    Wait there please

    部屋に入てください
    heya ni haite kudasai
    Enter in the room please

    You may guess how it is the negative form.. try to make your guess.. if you are...

    Read more (244 words more)

    In this lesson we will see how to ask people to do something without being considered rude or impolite.

    V-te kudasai

    This is the most versatile form of request. It's polite enough to be used with everyone, even the first time you meet them.

    そこで待ってください 
    soko de matte kudasai
    Wait there please

    部屋に入てください
    heya ni haite kudasai
    Enter in the room please

    You may guess how it is the negative form.. try to make your guess.. if you are right, you already have a japanese mind :D

    B1-naide kudasai

    Yeah, you just have to use the negative V-te form, using the negative auxiliary -nai, conjugating it into its -te form "naide" and attaching it to the conjugated base that is used with "nai".. B1 as always.

    花をふまないでください
    hana o fumanaide kudasai
    Do not step on the flowers please

    絵にふれないでください
    e ni furenaide kudasai
    Don't touch the paintings please

    V-te kure

    kure is simply the plain form of kudasai, so it has same meaning and it's used the same way. The only difference is that it's not polite as kudasai, so it may be used only among friends or with an inferior person.

    その話は止めてくれ
    sono hanashi wa yamete kure
    Stop telling that story please

    Obviously, the negative form is B1-naide kure

    怒らないでくれ
    okoranaide kure
    don't get angry please

    There is no problem if you use V-te kure in indirect speech, cause, as always, it doesn't affect the politeness of the sentence.

    お金を貸してくれとたのまれた
    okane o kashite kure to tanomareta
    He asked me to lend him some money

    Other expression of request

    V-te kure tamae: Used by men with inferiors
    V-te okure: Used by parents with kids or masters with servants
    V-te choudai: Used by women with friends or inferiors
    V-te ne/yo: used by women with firends, by kids with relatives, among friends · close

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    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #23 - Imperative

      Posted on 24 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 115 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

      Imperative is obviously used to give an order to someone else.
      In Japan, the way you talk with others and the politeness you use is very important. So use this carefully.

      Imperative form of the verb: B6

      Ok, this is quite simple.. you simply have to remember how you get the B6 conjugated form and use it in a sentence.
      You forgot? :D Read again Lesson #11 ^^

      彼に手紙を書け
      kare ni tegami o kake
      Write a letter to him!

      ここで待て
      koko de mate
      Wait here!

      あのを見ろ
      ano o ...

      Read more (451 words more)

      Imperative is obviously used to give an order to someone else.
      In Japan, the way you talk with others and the politeness you use is very important. So use this carefully.

      Imperative form of the verb: B6

      Ok, this is quite simple.. you simply have to remember how you get the B6 conjugated form and use it in a sentence.
      You forgot? :D Read again Lesson #11 ^^

      彼に手紙を書け
      kare ni tegami o kake
      Write a letter to him!

      ここで待て
      koko de mate
      Wait here!

      あのを見ろ
      ano o miro
      Look that!

      よく勉強しろ
      yoku benkyou shiro
      Study well!

      Ichidan verbs and suru has an imperative literary variant.

      V.Ichidan: -ro--->-yo
      suru: shiro--->seyo

      Negative imperative: B3+na

      酒を飲んだら運転するな
      sake o nondara unten suruna
      If you drink alcohol, don't drive! [運転する-->unten suru-->to drive]

      彼にとってこのケーキを作ったので食べるな
      kare ni totte kono keeki o tsukutta no de teberu na
      Since i did this cake for him, don't eat it!

      Imperative form B6 is a real order so it sounds rude and impolite. So it's used only in the following cases:

      -Men can use it talking with male friends or an inferior person adding "yo" at the end to lessen the harshness.
      早く行けよ
      hayaku ike yo
      go fast!

      あした必ずこの仕事を終えろよ
      ashita kanarazu kono shigoto o oero yo
      Make sure to finish this work by tomorrow [必ず-->kanarazu-->absolutely]

      -Military orders.

      止まれ
      tomare
      stop!

      進め
      susume
      go ahead!

      -In written language, for example in the questions of an exam.

      動詞を過去形にせよ
      doushi o kakokei ni seyo
      Put the verb into past form

      答えを書け
      kotae o kake
      write the answer

      In indirect speech the harshness of the B6 doesn't affect the politeness of the whole sentence that is determined by the verb of the principal clause.
      For example:
      彼に酒は止めろといつも言っています
      kare ni sake wa yamero to itsumo itte imasu
      I always tell him to stop drinking alcohol

      This is a polite sentence cause "itte imasu" is in its polite form.

      we'll talk about indirect speech later, just remember that it's always the verb in the principal clause the determine the politeness of the sentence and not the verbs in subordinate clauses!

      B2 + nasai

      This structure is still imperative but a bit less harsh and rude than the simple B6. Being an imperative, is usually used only by teachers to students or parents to kids.

      ここに座りなさい
      koko ni suwarinasai
      Sit here

      早くバスに乗りなさい
      hayaku basu ni norinasai
      Get on the bus. fast!

      For the negative form you can use the expression of prohibition "V-te wa ikenai"

      座ってはいけません
      suwatte wa ikemasen
      Don't sit

      ここにごみをすててはいけない
      koko ni gomi o sutete wa ikenai
      Don't throw your trash here

      To lessen the harshness you can add "o" before the verb:

      お立ちなさい
      o tachinasai
      Get up

      これをお使いなさい
      kore o o tsukainasai
      Use this

      B2 + tamae

      This structure may be used by men toward an inferior

      いつでも家へ来たまえ
      itsudemo ie e kitamae
      Come to my home anytime

      ぜひあの本を読みたまえ
      zehi ano hon o yomitamae
      You absolutely have to read that book [ぜひ-->zehi-->absolutely]

      Final note
      Due to reasons of politeness, expressions of request are usually used instead of imperative expressions.
      We'll see them in next lesson ^^ · close

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      • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #22 - Exhortative

        Posted on 23 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 91 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

        Exhortative is used when who talks exhorts or asks someone to do something (together or not). It's different from imperative cause exhortative is more like a request and not an order.

        Volite form + ka/yo/ya

        As i already said last lesson, the volitive form, when the subject is not expressed, may have exhortative value.
        This is the japanese version of the english "let's..."
        In fact, who talk asks the interlocutor to do something togheter.
        Adding a final particle, you ...

        Read more (308 words more)

        Exhortative is used when who talks exhorts or asks someone to do something (together or not). It's different from imperative cause exhortative is more like a request and not an order.

        Volite form + ka/yo/ya

        As i already said last lesson, the volitive form, when the subject is not expressed, may have exhortative value.
        This is the japanese version of the english "let's..."
        In fact, who talk asks the interlocutor to do something togheter.
        Adding a final particle, you are asking for the interlocutor's consent

        もう帰ろう
        mou kaeru
        Let's go back already!

        食べ始めよう
        tabe hajimeyou
        Let's start eating!

        きみこさんに手紙を書きましょうか
        let's write a letter to kimiko, ok?

        When the volitive form is used with the particle ka, it may be both interrogative volitive and exhortative.

        窓を開けましょうか
        mado o akemashouka

        This sentence may be used to say:

        shall i open the window?
        or
        Let's open the window!

        The difference is that in the interrogative volite translation the subject is "watashi ga"
        if it happens that the subject is not expressed like in this case, only the context may help you understanding the real meaning.

        -nai ka -masen ka

        With the negative interrogative sentence, you can express the meaning "why we don't do...?"
        It may also be translated in others ways like "what about...?" "would you like to..?"

        テニスをしませんか
        tenisu o shimasenka
        why we don't play tennis? / what about playing tennis? / would you like to play tennis?

        あの喫茶店に行かないか
        ano kissaten ni ikanaika
        what about going to that cafè?

        -tara dou ka / -tara dou desu ka

        This structure is used to exhort or push the interlocutor to do something (not together). With the meaning "why don't YOU...?"
        This is an advice, a suggestion you give to the interlocutor.

        -tara is, in practice, V-ta + ra so it's used with B2/B2a conjugated form of the verbs.

        そのお金を銀行にあずけたらどうですか
        sono okane o ginkou no azuketara dou desuka
        Why you don't deposit this money in bank?

        日曜日に行ったらどうか
        nichiyoubi ni ittara dou ka
        why you don't go there on sunday?

        Used with a name "dou desuka" o "ikaga desu ka" means "would you like...?"

        お菓子をどうですか
        okashi o dou desuka
        would you like something sweet?

        もう一杯いかがですか
        mou ippai ikaga desuka
        would you like another cup? · close

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        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #21 - Volitive

          Posted on 19 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 72 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

          Volitive expresses the will or intention of someone to do something.
          In japanese, volitive has different way to be expressed, but the most common is to use the volitive verb form.

          V.Godan ----> B1a + u
          V.Ichidan ---> B1 + you
          kuru ---------> koyou
          suru ---------> suyou

          Some examples:
          行く (iku) ---> 行こう (ikou)
          書く (kaku) ---> 書こう (kakou)
          起きる (okiru) ---> 起きよう (okiyou)
          捨てる (suteru) ---> 捨てよう (suteyou)

          Volitive can be transl...

          Read more (979 words more)

          Volitive expresses the will or intention of someone to do something.
          In japanese, volitive has different way to be expressed, but the most common is to use the volitive verb form.

          V.Godan ----> B1a + u
          V.Ichidan ---> B1 + you
          kuru ---------> koyou
          suru ---------> suyou

          Some examples:
          行く (iku) ---> 行こう (ikou)
          書く (kaku) ---> 書こう (kakou)
          起きる (okiru) ---> 起きよう (okiyou)
          捨てる (suteru) ---> 捨てよう (suteyou)

          Volitive can be translated into english as "I'm going to.." "I'll.." "I think I'll" "I intend to.."

          アパートを買おう
          Apaato o kaou
          I'm going to buy an apartment

          あした早く起きよう
          ashita hayaku okiyou
          I will wake up early tomorrow

          This base form expresses the FIRM will to do something. To soften the meaning you can add at the end "-to omou" or "-to omotte iru" (to think)

          来年日本へ行こうと思う
          rainen nihon e ikou to omou
          I think i will go to japan next year

          For 3rd person you have to add "-to omotte iru" or "to itte iru" that respectively mean "He thinks that..." and "he says that.."

          彼は医者になろうと行っている
          kare wa isha ni narou to itte iru
          He says he is going to become a doctor (医者-->isha-->doctor)

          Polite Form

          To get the polite form you have to conjugate "masu" into its polite form "mashou"

          その手紙は私が書きましょう
          sono tegami wa watashi ga kakimashou
          About that letter, I'll write it

          Negative Form

          For the negative you have to use another auxiliary: -mai

          V-godan---> B3 + mai
          V-ichidan---> B1 or B3 + mai
          kuru---> kurumai
          suru---> surumai

          Using B3 with Ichidan verbs is irregular, but pretty common with certain verbs.
          For polite form you can attach "-mai" to the B3 from of the polite auxiliary "-masu". "-masumai" is a conjugation of "masu" so it must be used with B2.

          もう彼女に会うまい
          mou kanojo ni aumai
          I'm not going to see her anymore

          あのことは決して忘れまい (or 忘れるまい)
          ano koto wa kesshite wasuremai (or wasurerumai)
          i won't forget that (about that, i won't forget it)

          When the subject is in 3rd person, "-mai" DOESN'T express the negative intention of the subject but the NEGATIVE guess of the talker.

          彼は来るまい
          kare wa kurumai
          I don't think he'll come
          (and NOT "he think to do not come" or "he doesnt intend to come" or "he isn't going to come")

          このねこは死ぬまい
          kono neko wa shinumai
          I don't think this cat will die

          Interrogative Form

          In this form, volitive expresses the will to do something, asking for the consent of the interlocutor.
          To get it you simply have to add "-ka" to the volitive form.

          私がごはんを作ろうか
          watashi ga gohan o tsukurouka
          shall i prepare lunch?

          私が彼に話しましょうか
          watashi ga kare ni hanashimashouka
          shall i talk to him?

          When the subject is not present, this sentences may become "exhortative" like the english "let's.."

          gohan o tsukurou(ka/yo/ya)---> let's prepare lunch!
          kare ni hanashimashou(ka/yo/ya)---> let's talk to him!

          but we will talk about esortative in the next lesson.

          Other way to express volitive

          B4 + Tsumori da

          You can add "tsumori da" at the end of the sentence with the verb in B4. Add "tsumori dewanai or tsumori wa nai" to make it negative.
          You can use this structure for the past, usind "datta" instead of "da"

          明後日ミラノへ出発つもりだ
          asatte mirano e shuppatsu tsumori da
          I'll leave for Milan the day after tomorrow

          すぐ返すつもりだったが何ヶ月も借りてしまった
          sugu kaesu tsumori datta ga nankagetsu mo karite shimatta
          I wanted to return it immediately but i ended up keeping it for months (借りる-->kariru-->to rent)

          彼は最初音楽家になるつもりではなかった
          kare wa saisho ongakuka ni naru tsumori dewanakatta
          He didn't want to become a musician at first [最初-->saisho-->at first 音楽家-->ongakuka-->musician]

          V-ta + tsumori da

          When "tsumori da" is used in a sentence with the verb in past form it means "believe to have done" "think to have done".

          彼は一冊本を書いただけでゆめいになったつもりだ
          kare wa issatsu hon o kaita dake de yumei ni natta tsumori da
          He thinks to have become famous only because he wrote a book

          私はあの時恩を返したつもりだった
          watashi wa ano toki on o kaeshita tsumori datta
          I thought to have returned the obligation at that time

          V-you to suru

          Adding "to suru" to the volitive verb you can add a further meaning to the sentence.

          V-you to suru with verbs that express a voluntary action means "Try to do" "Do the effort to do"

          彼は起きようとしたが起きられなかった
          kare wa okiyou to shita ga okirarenakatta
          he tried to get up but he couldn't ["rareru" is attached to verbs to get their potential form]

          彼女は彼の名前を思い出そうとした
          kanojo wa kare no namae o omoidasou to shita
          She tried to remember his name [思い出す-->omoidasu-->to remember]

          With the other verbs it means "being on the verge to.." "to have almost done"

          彼はその虫を殺そうとしたがかわいそうになって止めた
          kare wa sono mushi o korosou to shita ga kawaisou ni natte yameta
          He was going to kill that insect but, being moved to pity, he stopped

          V-yo + kana

          Adding kana (girls can use also "kashira") to the volitive form you express a vague intention, almost an hesitation.

          あしたは仕事を休もうかな
          ashita wa shigoto o yasomou kana
          Maybe I'll take a day off tomorrow (should i take a day off tomorrow?)

          あの人に本当のことを言おうかしら
          ano hito ni hontou no koto o iou kashira
          Maybe i'll tell him the truth (Should i tell him the truth?)

          Base form vs volitive form

          The present base form already expresses the intention to do something so:

          watashi wa kyouto e iku
          watashi wa kyouto e ikou

          have almost the same meaning "I'll go to kyoto"

          The past form instead simply describes a fact so it's different than the volitive past form.

          watashi wa tabemasen deshita --> i didn't eat
          watashi wa taberu tsumori dewanakatta --> i didn't want to eat · close

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          • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #20 - Desiderative

            Posted on 18 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 45 views · 6 comments · 0 likes

            Japanese are strange people.. even to simply say what they want.. they were able to make things complicated :D

            Yeah :D There are in fact different way to say "I want xxx" "I want to xxx" in japanese.

            We are going now to look into it ^^

            "I want" with nouns

            When what you want is a noun you have to use this structure:

            X wa N ga hoshii

            X wants N

            Hoshii is a normal I-adjective s...

            Read more (1198 words more)

            Japanese are strange people.. even to simply say what they want.. they were able to make things complicated :D

            Yeah :D There are in fact different way to say "I want xxx" "I want to xxx" in japanese.

            We are going now to look into it ^^

            "I want" with nouns

            When what you want is a noun you have to use this structure:

            X wa N ga hoshii

            X wants N

            Hoshii is a normal I-adjective so you can conjugate it just as any other adjectives. So if you want to say "wanted", it's enough to use "hoshikatta".
            If you want to say "don't want", it's enough to use "hoshikunai"
            and so on..

            私は車がほしいです
            watashi wa kuruma ga hoshii desu
            I want a car

            私はりんごがほしくなかった
            watashi wa ringo ga hoshikunakatta
            I didn't want a apple

            "I want to" do something

            X wa N ga/o B2+tai

            X want to "verb" N ga/o

            -tai is an auxiliary verb that is conjugated like a I-adjective (-takunai, -takatta etc..).
            -tai is used with B2 conjugated form!

            N ga/o is the possible direct object of the verb.

            あなたはテニスがしたいですか
            anata wa tenisu ga shitai desuka
            Do you want to play tennis [tenisu o suru-->play tennis]

            私はオランダにいきたくない
            watashi wa oranda ni ikitakunai
            I don't want to go to Holland

            When to use "ga" or "o" with the direct object of the verb?

            you can normally use "ga" except when:

            -there are other complements between the direct object and the verb:

            私はイタリア語を子供たちに教えたい
            watashi wa itariago o kodomotachi ni oshietai
            I want to teach italian to kids

            -the direct object is a person:

            私は彼を助けたい
            watashi wa kare o tasuketai
            I want to help him

            -with verbs that express "removal" "disappearence" or "change":

            あのこうを忘れたい
            ano kou o wasuretai
            I want to forget that fact

            HE wants

            When we want to express the desire of a third person we have to use the verbs -garu and -tagaru.

            Do you remember emotional adjectives? Yeah it works the same way.

            kare wa N o hoshigatte iru

            or

            kare wa N o B2+tagatte iru

            妹は自転車をほしがっている
            imouto wa jitensha o hoshigatte iru
            My younger sister wants a bike

            田中さんはあの映画を見たがっている
            tanaka-san wa ano eiga o mitagatte iru
            Tanaka-san wants to see that movie

            This structure can be used also without the progessive form. Let's look at this example:

            1)kono kodomo wa soto de asobitagatte imasu
            2)kono kodomo wa soto de asobitagarimasu [soto--> outside asobu--> to play]

            The progressive form in sentence #1 expresses the fact the the subject has the desire "now" "in this moment", while the present form in sentence #2 expresses a general desire.

            So the best translation of the 2 sentences is:

            1)this kid wants to play outside (now)
            2)this kid usually wants to play outside

            In the same way, the present form can be used for desires that are true in general:

            kodomotachi wa soto de asobitagarimasu
            kids generally want to play outside

            Just as it is for emotional adjectives, the restriction about the 3rd person is not valid when:

            - you use structures that express uncertainty [to itte iru, rashii, soud, darou, noda---> He says that... it seems that.. I heard that.. If i'm not wrong...]

            kare wa sutereo ga hoshii to itte iru
            He says that he wants a stereo

            kare wa nihongo o naraitai rashii
            It seems he wants to learn japanese [narau-->to learn]

            - Or when it's used in a subordinate clause.

            kare wa yumeina kaisha de hatarakitai no de toukyou no daigaku ni hairitagatte iru
            Since he wants to work in a famous company, he wants to enter in tokyo university [yumeina-->famous, kaisha-->company, hataraku-->to work, daigaku-->university]

            "kare wa yumeina kaisha de hatarakitai no de" is a causal clause so you can use hoshii/B2+tai without problem, while "toukyou no daigaku ni hiritagatte iru" is the principal clause so you have to use gatte iru/tagatte iru

            - when the desire is expressed in past form

            kare wa biiru ga nomitakatta
            He wanted to drink beer

            When the subject of the desire is different from the subject of the verb

            This is when i want to say "I want that someone does something"

            X wa Y ni N o V-te hoshii/moraitai/itadakitai

            X wants that Y does N

            hoshii and moraitai are used in the same way, while itadakitai is the humble form

            (私は)(あなたに)窓を開けてほしい/もらいたい
            (watashi wa) (anata ni) mado o akete hoshii/moraitai
            I want that you open the windows

            mado o akete itadakitai
            I would like you to open the window

            When you have to make it negative, you can conjugate hoshii or moraitai in their negative form, or put the V-te verb in its negative form

            Rooma e ikanaide hoshii
            Rooma e itte hoshikunai
            I don't want that you go to Rome

            To make the request more polite you can add "-to omou no desu ga" at the end of the sentence:

            mado o akete itadakitai tp omou no desu ga
            I would like you to open the window please

            Instead, wen the subject in in 3rd person you can add "to itte iru" "youda" "souda" rashii" to make it polite.

            kare wa watashi ni kanojo o atte hoshii to itte iru
            He would like me to meet her

            More immediate expression of desire, almost exclamatory

            B5 + ba ------------>+ ii na / ii naa
            B3 + to ------------->+ ii noni na / ii noni naa
            B2/B2a + tara ----->

            These structures mean something like "Ohh if i could..." "how good if..."

            shiken ni ukareba ii naa
            If I could pass the exams!! [shiken-->exam ukareru-->to pass the exam]

            yuki ga nakusan furu to ii na
            How good if it snows a lot!!

            mou sukoshi hana ga takakattara naa
            If i had a bit higher nose!! [sukoshi-->a bit hana-->nose] · close

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            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #19 - V-te Miru / V-te Miseru

              Posted on 17 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 46 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

              V-te Miru

              it may be used with a verb that expresses a voluntary action to say "do something and see" "do something to see". Here the verb "miru" (to see) keep his literal meaning.

              彼は鍵穴から覗いて中を見た
              kare wa kagi ana kara nozoite naka o mita
              He looked inside peeking through the keyhole [鍵穴-->kagi ana-->keyhole 覗く-->nozoku-->to peek

              彼女は木に上って門のうしろを見た木
              kanojo wa ki ni nob...

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              V-te Miru

              it may be used with a verb that expresses a voluntary action to say "do something and see" "do something to see". Here the verb "miru" (to see) keep his literal meaning.

              彼は鍵穴から覗いて中を見た
              kare wa kagi ana kara nozoite naka o mita
              He looked inside peeking through the keyhole [鍵穴-->kagi ana-->keyhole 覗く-->nozoku-->to peek

              彼女は木に上って門のうしろを見た木
              kanojo wa ki ni nobotte mon no ushiro o mita
              She looked behind the gate climbing on a tree

              it may be also used to say "try to do something (to see what happens)"

              どんな物だか知らないが食べて見よう
              donna mono da ka shiranai ga tabete miyou
              I don't know what is it but I'll try to eat it (物-->mono-->thing)

              *here the particle ka is used to make indirect interrogatives, don't worry too much about it now

              私はおそるおそる触って見ました
              watashi wa osoru osoru sawatte mimashita
              I cautiously tryed to touch

              V-te Miseru

              When it's used in past form:

              -with a verb that expresses a voluntary action means "do something and show":

              彼は箱を開けて見せた
              kare wa hako o akete miseta
              he opened the box and showed what there was inside (箱-->hako-->box)

              "what there was inside" is not present in the japanese sentence, it's the verb "miseru" that implies it

              母は友達にケーキを作って見せる
              haha wa tomodachi ni keeki o tsukutte miseta
              my mother did a cake and showed it to my friend

              -"do something to show your talent"

              私は客の前でピアノを弾いて見せた
              watashi wa kyaku no mae de piano o hiite miseta
              I played the piano in front of the guests [弾く-->haku-->to play]

              In this sentence you imply the fact that you did it to show that you are good at it and probably the guests appreciated it. Saying "watashi wa kyaku no mae de piano o hiita", instead, you say "I played the piano in front of the guests" as well but you are just telling a fact.

              彼は皆の前で駅の名前を全部言って見せた
              kare wa mina no mae de eki no namae o zenbu itte miseta
              He was good at telling the name of all the stations in front of everyone

              Again, telling "kare wa mina no mae de eki no namae o zenbu itta" you would only tell a fact. Using "itte miseta" instead, you imply that "he did well" "it was not easy but he was able to do it"

              when it's used in present form:

              -it indicates a steady intention of the talker:

              必ず金持ちになって見せる
              kanarazu kanemochi ni natte miseru
              (You'll see!) I'm surely going to be rich! [必ず-->kanarazu-->surely 金持ち-->kanemochi-->rich]

              彼女の恋人をいつか奪って見せる
              kanojo no koibito o itsuka ubatte miseru
              (you'll see) One day, i'll steal her lover! (恋人-->koibito-->lover 奪う-->ubau-->to steal)

              V-te Ageru / V-te Kureru / V-te Morau

              Japanese language has a complicated way to express "give" and "recieve" that goes beyond the simple "v-te verb" structure. So we'll talk about it later

              Other use of B2

              From the next lesson we'll look at other auxialiary verbs, so before that, let's look at the use of the B2 conjugated form just as it is, without attaching to it other auxiliaries.

              Suspensive function

              Just as the V-te form, the B2 conjugated form can be used to coordinate actions and sentences. The only difference between them is that B2 may be used when the subjects of the sentences are different.

              車は橋を渡り森に入った
              kuruma wa hashi o watari mori ni haitta
              the car crossed the bridge and entered the forest [橋-->hashi-->bridge 渡る-->wataru-->to cross, to pass 森-->mori-->forest]

              Just as the V-te form, the verb in B2 form takes the tense of the last verb.

              父は新聞を読み母はごはんを作っている
              chichi wa shinbun o yomi haha wa gohan o tsukutte iru
              my father is reading the newspaper and my mother is preparing the lunch

              In this sentence you could not use the v-te form cause the subject of the first clause is "chichi" while the subject of the second is "haha".

              It transform the verb into noun

              here some examples:

              iku---> to go ---------------- iki--->going
              kaeru---> to return -------- kaeri--->return
              hajimeru---> to begin ----- hajime--->beginning
              nusumu---> to steal ------- nusumi---> theft
              owaru---> to finish --------- owari---> end
              hikaru---> to illuminate ---- hikari---> light

              It may be used in composed nouns

              kau---> to buy --------------- kaimono--->shopping (mono=thing)
              nomu---> to drink ----------- sakenomi--->drinker
              naku---> to cry -------------- nakimushi--->crybaby (mushi=insect)
              kaku---> to write ----------- kakitori--->dictation

              You actually have to encounter those nouns to know them. This part is more like an info for you.

              It may be used in composed verbs

              sashi korosu--->to kill with stabs [korosu=to kill sasu=to stab]
              tori dasu---> to extract [dasu=to put out toru= to take]
              tabe chirakasu---> to leave untidy after having eaten [chirakasu=leave untidy taberu=to eat]
              suberi ochiru---> to fall slipping [ochiru=to fall suberu=to slip]

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              • Lets' Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #18 - V-te Shimau

                Posted on 8 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 208 views · 2 comments · 0 likes

                Let's keep going with other V-te + auxiliary verb structures!

                V-te shimau

                Also this structure may have different meaning:

                point up the fulfilment of the action, like "finish to..":

                お金を全部使ってしまいました
                okane o zenbu tsukatte shimaimashita
                I already spent all the money (lit. I already finished to use all the money)

                その手紙を早く書いてしまいなさい
                sono tegami o hayaku kaite shimainasai
                (Fi...

                Read more (669 words more)

                Let's keep going with other V-te + auxiliary verb structures!

                V-te shimau

                Also this structure may have different meaning:

                point up the fulfilment of the action, like "finish to..":

                お金を全部使ってしまいました
                okane o zenbu tsukatte shimaimashita
                I already spent all the money (lit. I already finished to use all the money) [zenbu-->all tsukau-->to use]

                その手紙を早く書いてしまいなさい
                sono tegami o hayaku kaite shimainasai
                (Finish to) write that letter quickly! [tegami-->letter nasai-->used to make request]

                ごはんを食べてしまいましたか
                gohan o tabete shimaimashitaka
                Did you already finish to eat?

                Note the difference:

                もう食べましたか
                mou tabemashitaka
                did you already eat?

                depending on the situation, it may get different nuances: "at the end.." "after all.." "i ended up doing..."

                やはり家を売ってしまおう
                yahari ie o utte shimaou
                After all, i'll sell the house [yahari-->after all uru-->to sell]

                彼はついに真実を言ってしまった
                kare wa tsuini shinjitsu o itte shimatta
                At the end, he said the truth [tsuini-->finally shinjitsu-->truth

                うっかりかばんを忘れてしまった
                ukkari kaban o wasurete shimatta
                I carelessly ended up forgetting the bag [ukkari--> carelessly kaban-->bag wasureru-->to forget]

                When used in its volitive form "shimaou", it indicates the will of the subject to do the action, while the other forms indicate a non-volontary, damaging or not wanted action.
                I want to "sell the house", while he didn't really wanted to "say the truth" and i didn't willingly "forgot the bag".

                V-te iku

                what a surprise, also this structure may have different meanings :D :

                doing something and go: (in this cases, iku keeps its origininal meaning)

                コーヒーを飲んで行こう
                koohii o nonde ikou
                let's drink some coffee and then let's go (nomu-->to drink)

                彼女にキスして行った
                kanojo ni kisu shite itta
                I kissed her then i went away

                indicates a gradual change with a verb that express the change or adj+naru (it's often used with adverbs that determine the speed of the change)

                蝋燭の火がだんだん消えて行った
                rousoku no hi ga dandan kiete itta
                The candlelight was gradually vanishing [rousoku no hi-->candlelight dandan-->gradually,slowly kieru-->to vanish]

                霧が深くなって行った
                kiri ga fukaku natte itta
                The fog was becoming thicker [kiri-->fog fukai-->thick]

                it expresses the continuation or the repeat of an action from a given time (often "from now on")

                それからは早く起きて行くつもりだ
                sore made wa hayaku okite iku tsumori da
                From now on, I'll try to wake up early [okiru-->wake up tsumori da-->a way to express a will for the future]

                V-te kuru

                It may be considered the opposite of v-te iku.

                Doing something and then come back

                行ってきます
                itte kimasu
                I go and then i come back

                食べてきました
                tabete kimashita
                I ate and then i came

                when it's in present tense it indicates a gradual process of "to spring" "to appear":

                春になると草が芽をでしてくる
                haru ni naru to kasa ga me o deshite kuru
                when spring comes, grass sprouts out (lit. grass put out the sprout)

                赤ちゃんはどこから生まれてきますか
                akachan wa doko kara umarete kimasuka
                where do the babies born from? [akachan-->baby umareru-->to born]

                when it's in past tense it indicates a process that continued until now:

                最近,車の数が急に増えてきた
                saikin, kuruma no kazu ga kyuuni fuete kita
                recently, the number of cars rapidly increased [kazu-->number kyuuni-->rapidly fueru-->to increase]

                川の水がだんだんよごれてきた
                kawa no mizu ga dandan yogorete kita
                the water of the river slowly become more polluted [kawa-->river mizu-->water yogoreru--> getting dirty]

                it expresses the continuation or the repeat of an action till now:

                私は五人の子供育ててきた
                watashi ha gonin no kodomo sodetete kita
                I have raised 5 children [kodomo-->son, kid sodeteru-->raise]

                it expresses the start of a process or action:

                その時雪が降ってきました
                sono toki yuki ga futte kimashita
                In that moment, it started snowing [toki-->moment, time yuki ga furu--> to snow]

                You use V-te kuru when the process or action DIRECTLY affect you.. in this case who talk is under the snow.. it's a direct experience.
                If you are only watching the action of the process you have to use the verb "hajimeru" that means "to start".. it's an objective observation.

                sono toki yuki ga furi hajimemashita
                In that moment, it started snowing

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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #17 - V-te aru / V-te oku

                  Posted on 7 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 259 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                  We talked a lot about V-te iru cause it's used very often, but iru isn't the only auxiliary verb you can use together with the V-te form. Now we'll see the others, starting with V-te aru and V-te oku

                  V-te + aru

                  This is quite similar to V-te iru when it express the resultant state of an action but the real difference is that V-te aru is only used with transitive verbs that describe a voluntary action!...

                  Read more (734 words more)

                  We talked a lot about V-te iru cause it's used very often, but iru isn't the only auxiliary verb you can use together with the V-te form. Now we'll see the others, starting with V-te aru and V-te oku

                  V-te + aru

                  This is quite similar to V-te iru when it express the resultant state of an action [V-te iru with momentary, resultative, intransitive verbs] but the real difference is that V-te aru is only used with transitive verbs that describe a voluntary action!
                  It's also very similar to passive but the agent is NEVER expressed and it point out the final result of the action more than the action itself.

                  V-te aru may simply describe the state of a situation:

                  椅子が机の上に乗せてある
                  isu ga tsukue no ue ni nosete aru
                  There is a chair putted on the desk (cause someone put it there) [isu-->chair tsukue-->desk noseru-->to put)

                  壁に地図が張っている
                  kabe ni chizu ga hatte iru
                  There is a map affixed on the wall (cause someone affixed it there) [kabe-->wall chizu--> map --> haru-->to affix)

                  As you can see, in this cases, v-te aru stays in the middle between the existence verb aru/iru and the passive. But if you simply want to say that "there is a chair on the desk" you say "tsukue no ue ni isu ga aru" while with the passive you focus on the action "a chair has been put" while here the most important thing you want to express is that the chair now is on the table.. like you are saying "Look! a chiar has been put on the desk! and now the chair is on the desk!"

                  V-te aru is also used for situation that are annoying for the talker

                  門の前にいつまでごみ箱が出してある
                  mon no mae ni itsumademo gomi hako ga deshite aru
                  the trash can is always left in front of the gate (cause someone put out it there) [mon-->gate gomi-->trash hako-->box dasu-->to put out]

                  Again, the sentence is pointing aout that the subject (the trash can) is always there in front of the gate, even if the action "deshite aru" means "put out" and it became the reason why the trash can is always in front of the gate.. "cause someone put it out there"

                  V-te aru may also describe an action or condition prepared for future events or for something you want to realize in the future. In this case it follows a final subordinate clause with "you ni" or "tame ni" or a causal subordinate clause with "kara" "no de"

                  あした客が来るので酒が買ってある
                  ashita kyaku ga kuru no de sake ga katte aru
                  sake has already been bought for the guest who will come tomorrow [kyaku--> guest kau-->to buy]

                  東京に着いたらすぐ会えるように彼に連絡してある
                  toukyou ni tsuitara sugu aeru you ni kare ni renraku shite aru
                  I contacted him so i can meet him immediately when i arrive in tokyo [tsuku-->to arrive sugu-->immediately au-->to meet in its potential form renraku suru-->to contact]

                  Whichever function v-te aru is used for.. the action of the verb in its v-te form is already happened. nosete, hatte, deshite, katte, renraku shite.. are all actions already happened when you are telling it.

                  V-te oku

                  It's used with transitive verbs to describe a voluntary action with different meanings:

                  -do something and leave everything in the resultat state

                  私はかさを机の上に置いておいた
                  watashi wa kasa o tsukue no ue ni oite oita
                  I have put the umbrella on the desk (and i left it there) [kasa-->umbrella oku-->to put]

                  -do something for future events or something you want to realize in the future:

                  It may be considered the active version of v-te aru when it's used this way.

                  あした客が来るので私はさけを買っておいた
                  ashita kyaku ga kuru no de watashi wa sake o katte oita
                  I have bought sake for the guest who will come tomorrow

                  But v-te aru doesn't always describe action already happened (only when is in it's past form)

                  立たなくてすむように席の予約をしておく
                  tatanakute sumu you ni seki no yoyaku o shite oku
                  In order to do not have to stand up, I'll reserve the seats [tatte sumu-->stand up seki-->seat yoyaku-->reservation]

                  -do something within a given amount of time:

                  七時までにレポートを書いておこう
                  nanaji made ni repooto o kaite okou
                  I'll probably (finish to) write the report within 7 o'clock

                  -it gives a negative value to the action (like it's something it should not be done, or it's done with negligence):

                  彼はいつも歩道に車を止めておく
                  kare wa itsumo hodou ni kuruma o tomete oku
                  He always parks the car on the sidewalk (hodou-->sidewalk tomeru-->to stop)
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                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #16 - How to use V-te iru

                    Posted on 6 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 43 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                    Before going on with the use of v-te with other auxiliary verbs, I want to say something more about V-te iru. It's somthing i wanted to say in the previous lessons but that was so damn long already :D

                    I want to try to make clearer the difference between v-te iru with continuative verbs and with momentary resultative intransitive verbs.

                    I think that v-te iru with continuative verbs is pretty easy.. cause it's just the same as english. But wel.. let's see an example anyway.

                    -----...

                    Read more (1123 words more)

                    Before going on with the use of v-te with other auxiliary verbs, I want to say something more about V-te iru. It's somthing i wanted to say in the previous lessons but that was so damn long already :D

                    I want to try to make clearer the difference between v-te iru with continuative verbs and with momentary resultative intransitive verbs.

                    I think that v-te iru with continuative verbs is pretty easy.. cause it's just the same as english. But wel.. let's see an example anyway.

                    ------------\***********/------------
                    -----(1)----/****(2)****\------(3)---
                    ------------\*he is eating*/------------
                    ------------/**tabete iru*\-------------

                    (1) Person is sitted at the table
                    (2) Person is eating
                    (3) Person is sitted at the table

                    I just described a normal sequence of actions.. before you sat at the table, then you eat, when you finish to eat you are still sitted at the table.

                    Here, V-te iru is describing action number (2) "He is eating" --> "kare wa tabete iru"
                    As you can see "eat" is not a resultative verbs cause the subject "he" doesn't change his state during the action. He was sitting at the table both before and after he ate.

                    Now let's see an example with a momentary resultative intransitive verb:

                    ----------------\****************/------------------------
                    -------(1)------/******(2)*******\--------(3)--------------
                    ----------------\****************/-------------------------
                    ----------------/windows opened**\----windows is open
                    ----------------\****************/------aite iru----------

                    (1) The windows was closed
                    (2) The windows opened
                    (3) The windows is open

                    Here V-te iru describes situation number (3)!!!
                    That's why "mado wa aite iru" must be translated "The windows is open"

                    But how to understand if a verb must be considered part of the first group or part of the second?
                    Well this is really not easy! More then on the difference between continuative and momentary.. you have to check if they are resultative or not.

                    Watch this example:

                    --------------------\******************/------------------------
                    -------(1)----------/******(2)*********\--------(3)--------------
                    ---------------------\*****************/-------------------------
                    person was thin----/*person gained weight*\-----person is fat------
                    ---------------------\*****************/------futotte iru-------

                    (1) A person is thin
                    (2) A person is gaining weight
                    (3) A person is fat

                    You see, it's difficult to consider "gaining weight" as a non-continuative verb.. cause you need time to gain weight.. but it's instead obvious that it is a resultative verb.. cause the subject change state due to the action.. in fact before he is slim and then he becomes fat.
                    And, in fact, "futoru" is considered a momentary, resultative (and obviously intransitive) verb.. so "futotte iru" describes action number (3) and it must be translated as "he is fat" and NOT "he is getting fat"!!!

                    But remember, that "v-te iru" is used to describe action WHILE they are happening!

                    So, let's look again at the different examples:

                    ------------\***********/------------
                    -----(1)----/****(2)****\------(3)---
                    ------------\*he is eating*/------------
                    ------------/**tabete iru*\-------------

                    (1) Person is sitted at the table
                    (2) Person is eating
                    (3) Person is sitted at the table

                    Here we are talking during period number (2), he is eating while we are talking.
                    If we move to period number (1) we would describe action number (2) as "kare wa taberu darou" --> "he'll probably eat"
                    If we move to period number (3) we would say "kare wa tabeta" --> "he ate" or maybe "kare wa tabete ita" --> "he was eating"

                    ----------------\****************/------------------------
                    -------(1)------/******(2)*******\--------(3)--------------
                    ----------------\****************/-------------------------
                    ----------------/windows opened**\----windows is open
                    ----------------\****************/------aitte iru----------

                    (1) The windows is closed
                    (2) The windows opened
                    (3) The windows is open

                    Here we are talking during period number (3) instead! The windows is ALREADY open while we talk. So "mado wa aite iru" ---> "the windows is open"
                    So action number (2) is "mado wa aita" --> windows opened

                    But what happens if we move to period number (2)??

                    In english it would be:

                    ---------------------------\******************/------------------------
                    -------(1)-----------------/******(2)*********\--------(3)--------------
                    ----------------------------\*****************/-------------------------
                    windows was closed--/*window is opening*\----windows will be open
                    ----------------------------\*****************/-------------------------

                    So, how can we say this "windows is opening" in japanese if i can't use "v-te iru"??

                    Well.. you actually can't :( after all, even in english.. the present progressive is never or rarely used with some verbs.. you never say "i'm knowing" or "i'm understanding" for example..

                    So, it's really not possible to describe the action "the windows is opening"??

                    Yeah, it's possible!

                    Many intransitive japanese verbs have a different transitive form that can be used in this cases.
                    So maybe you can't say "the windows is opening" but you can say "someone is opening the windows"!

                    the verb that we used till now is "aku" (with v-te form "aite iru"), but "aku" has also a transitive version: "akeru"

                    mado wa aku --> the window opens
                    (dareka ga) mado o akeru --> (someone) opens the windows!

                    So you can say:

                    kare wa mado o akete iru --> he is opening the windows!

                    Problem solved!

                    Unfortunately some intransitive verbs haven't a transitive version.. for example "futoru"... so sometimes is really not possible to express the progressive form of some verb.

                    Here a list of the most common couple of transitive-intransitive verbs.. but you'll encouter them anyway while practicing your japanese :D

                    Transitive verb -------------------------------------- Intransitive verb

                    上げる (ageru) --> raise, increase -------------- 上がる (agaru) --> climb
                    開ける (akeru) --> open (something) ---------- 開く(aku) --> (something) opens
                    出す (dasu) --> put out --------------------------- 出る (deru) --> exit, go out
                    始める (hajimeru) --> begin (something) ------ 始まる (hajimaru) --> (something) begins
                    入れる (ireru) --> insert, put inside ------------- 入る (hairu) --> enter
                    返す (kaesu) --> return, give back -------------- 帰る (kaeru) --> return, go back
                    見つける (mitsukeru) --> find --------------------- 見つかる (mitsukaru) --> be found
                    落とす (otosu) --> let fall, push down ---------- 落ちる (ochiru) --> to fall
                    終える (oeru) --> finish (something) ------------ 終わる (owaru) --> (something) finishes
                    下げる (sageru) --> lower, reduce -------------- 下がる (sagaru) --> stoop, lower yourself
                    閉める (shimeru) --> close (something) -------- 閉まる (shimaru) --> (something) closes
                    止める (tomeru) --> stop (something) ---------- 止まる (tomaru) --> (something) stops
                    割る (waru) --> break (something) ------------- 割れる (wareru) --> (something) breaks

                    These are only SOME of them!

                    I hope this explanation will help you!

                    My advice is to do not focus too much on the difference between english and japanese.. but it's probably better to simply focus on and understand how it works in japanese!
                    Probably once you get it.. you use v-te iru in the right way without even thinking what are you doing..
                    I mean.. talking english everyday.. you normally use "i know" and not "i'm knowing".. you don't have to think about it everytime you want to use that verb.. i think that it will be the same for japanese.. but of course.. we are only at the beginning.. so for a while you'll have to make sure you are using v-te iru as it's meant to be used!

                    Good luck :D
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                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson # 15 - V-te Form / V-te iru

                      Posted on 5 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 54 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                      Did you learn how to use present, past and polite verbs?
                      Yes? very good! Cause now it's time to study the V-te form that it's used a lot in japanese. More than you will think after reading this lesson.

                      V-te form

                      B2/B2a + te

                      Negative ---> B1 + naide or B1 + nakute

                      As you see, for the negative V-te form, you have to conjugate the auxiliary -nai into its -te form.
                      -nai has 2 -te forms and usually naide is used, except when:

                      - verb has a causal function (do you rememb...

                      Read more (1569 words more)

                      Did you learn how to use present, past and polite verbs?
                      Yes? very good! Cause now it's time to study the V-te form that it's used a lot in japanese. More than you will think after reading this lesson.

                      V-te form

                      B2/B2a + te

                      Negative ---> B1 + naide or B1 + nakute

                      As you see, for the negative V-te form, you have to conjugate the auxiliary -nai into its -te form.
                      -nai has 2 -te forms and usually naide is used, except when:

                      - verb has a causal function (do you remember when we talked about adjiectives' -te form? Verbs' -te form has similar functions)

                      彼は眼鏡が見つからなくて困っている
                      kare wa mitsukaranakute komatte iru
                      He is in trouble because he doesn't find the glasses (眼鏡-->megane-->glasses 見つかる-->mitsukaru-->to find 困る-->komaru-->being in trouble)

                      - in idiomatic expression:

                      nakutemo ii --> "it's not necessary.."
                      nakutewa ikenai --> "you have to.."

                      - with adjectives:

                      atarashii --> atarashikunakute
                      shinsetsuna--> shinsetsude nakute

                      - with nouns:

                      N nashide --> "without N"
                      N ga nakute --> "because there isn't N" (reason clause)

                      kitte nashide deshite kudasai ---> please, send it without stamp
                      kare wa okane ga nakute komatte iru --> he is in trouble because he has not money

                      Function of V-te form

                      V-te form hasn't tense, the tense of the verb depend on the tense of the verb in the principal clause. And the subject too, it's the same subject of the principal clause.

                      Suspensive function

                      When you have to coordinate 2 or more propositions or 2 or more verbs.

                      山でスキーをして湖でスケートをした
                      yama de sukii o shite mizuumi de sukeeto o shita
                      I skied on mountain and skated on the lake (山-->yama-->mountain sukii o suru-->to ski 湖-->mizuumi-->lake sukeeto o suru-->to skate)

                      休みは、食べて寝てテレビを見る
                      yasumi wa, tabete nete terebi o miru
                      On holiday, I eat, sleep and watch TV (休み-->yasumi-->holiday neru-->to sleep miru-->watch, see)

                      As you can see, V-te verbs in these 2 sentences has 2 different tenses. In the first one, "shite" takes past tense cause the verb in the principal is "shita" (past form of suru). While in the second "tabete" and "nete" take present tense cause "miru" is in its present form.

                      Coordination of chronological sequence

                      This is only slightly different from suspensive function.

                      昨晩は家へ帰って彼に電話をした
                      sakuban wa ie e kaette kare ni denwa o shita
                      Last evening, i came back home and i phoned him (kaeru-->to come back, denwa o suru-->to phone)

                      銀座へ行って買い物をする
                      ginza e itte kaimono o suru
                      I go to Ginza and i do shopping

                      Reason clause

                      彼に会って遅くなりました
                      kare ni atte osoku narimashita
                      I was late because i met him (au-->to meet osoi-->late)

                      私は太ってスカートが入らない
                      watashi wa futotte sukaato ga hairanai
                      Since i gained weight, i don't enter in the skirt

                      This causal function CAN'T be used if the principal clause express uncertainty, imperative, volitive, prohibition or advice.

                      Concessive clause

                      彼は知って私に言いなかった
                      kare wa shitte watashi ni iinakatta
                      Although he knew it, he didn't tell me

                      私にするなと言って自分でしている
                      kare wa watashi ni suruna to itte jibun de shite iru
                      Although he says to me to don't do it, he does it himself (jibun-->myself, himself etc.)

                      Adverbial function

                      駅へ歩いていった
                      eki e aruite itta
                      He went to the station walking.

                      The principal verb is "itta" (went), while the -te form of the verb "aruku" (to walk) explain HOW the verb of the principal happened.

                      V-te + auxiliary verbs

                      Ok, this is the biggest part of the study of V-te form.
                      In fact you'll often find the V-te form with other verbs that, in this structure, lose their own meaning to express something else together with the v-te verb.
                      Those verbs are iru, aru, oku (to put), shimau (to finish), iku (to go), kuru (to come), miru (to see), miseru (to show), ageru (to give), kureru (to give) morau (to receive)

                      V-Te + iru

                      This structure has to be translated in different ways depending on the kind of verb is used in the V-te form.
                      So, we have to split verbs into "continuative " or "momentary" and "resultative" or "non-resultative"

                      A verb is considered "momentary" when it describe an action that last for a moment like "born" "die" "explode" "enter" "exit" "come"
                      A verb is considered "continuative" when it describe an action that last for some time like "eat" "sleep" "write" "talk"
                      Stative verbs are considered continuative ("be" "know" "have")

                      A verb is considered "resultative" when it creates a "resultant state", a different state than the one present before the action. Verbs like "die" "break" "fall" "open" are all resultative verbs.
                      All the other verbs are non-resultative.

                      V-te iru with "continative verb"

                      With "continuative verb" V-te iru corresponds to the english present progressive form.

                      私はおもしろい本を読んでいる
                      watashi wa omoshiroi hon o yonde iru
                      I'm reading an interesting book

                      彼は何をしていますか
                      掃除をしています
                      kare wa nani o shite imasuka?
                      souji o shite imasu
                      What is he doing?
                      He is cleaning

                      V-te iru with "momentary" "resultative" "intransitive" verb

                      With these verbs, V-te iru expresses the resultant state of the action.

                      電気がついている
                      denki ga tsuite iru
                      the light IS on

                      戸が開いています
                      to ga aite imasu
                      the door IS OPEN [and not "the door is opening"]

                      父はいま庭に行っています
                      chichi wa niwa ni itte imasu
                      My father is in the garden now (lit. My father went to the garden (and he is there now)) [and not "My father is going to the garden"]

                      ******** If the difference between continuative and momentary, resultative verbs is still unclear, try to read next lesson (#16)********************

                      Some verbs are both continuative and resultative. For them, the V-te form expresses both the present progressive form and the resultant state.
                      The more common are "atsumaru" (to gather, to assemble) and all the verbs about "putting something on" like "kiru" (to wear, to put on) or "haku" (to put on from the feet)

                      彼女はあたらしドレスを着ている
                      kanojo wa atarashi doresu o kite iru

                      means both:
                      She is wearing a new dress (she is putting on the new dress right now)
                      She wear a new dress (she already has the new dress on)

                      Some verbs seems "continuative" but they are considered "momentary":
                      iku (to go)
                      shinu (to die)
                      ochiru (to fall)
                      noru (to get on)

                      so:

                      itte iru ---> he (went and now) is there and NOT "he is going"
                      shinde iru ---> he is dead and NOT "he is dying"
                      ochite iru ---> he (fell and now) is there on the ground and NOT "he is falling"
                      notte iru ---> he (got on and now) is on and NOT "he is getting on"

                      When you want to express the progressive form of this verb, you have to use particular structure:

                      iku tochuu da --> He is going (lit. He is on the way)
                      shini souda --> He is dying (lit. It seems he is dying)
                      nori kakatte iru --> he is getting on
                      ochite kuru --> he is falling (toward me)
                      ochite iku --> he is falling (away from me)

                      With some verbs it's usually used the V-te iru form and not the base present form. In this case, the V-te form are translated with present tense.

                      shitte iru for "shiru" (to know)
                      sugurete iru for "sugereru" (to excel)
                      nite iru for "niru" (to resemble)
                      motte iru for "motsu" (to have)
                      oboete iru for "oboeru" (to remember)
                      sobiete iru for "sobieru" (to rise)
                      katachi/iro/kakkou o shite iru (to have shape/color/look)

                      V-te iru may be used for repetitive or habitual actions for a period of time but not always habitual

                      アフリカでは毎日おくの人が死んでいる
                      Afurika de wa mainichi oku no hito shinde iru
                      A lot of people die in Africa everyday (oku-->a lot)

                      社長は最近よくこのバーに来ています
                      shachou wa saikin yoku kono baa ni kite imasu
                      Recently, the president often come to this bar (saikin-->recently shachou-->president)

                      V-te iru may be used for fact objectively happened with 3rd person subject

                      彼は三年前エベレストに上っている
                      kare wa sannen mae eberesuto ni nobotte iru
                      3 years ago he climbed Everest (noboru-->to climb)

                      V-te ita

                      This is the past form of V-te iru. To make things easy.. when the V-te iru is translated with the present progressive.. v-te ita is translated with the past progressive, when v-te iru expresses a resultant state.. v-te ita may be translated with a past perfect

                      彼は新聞を読んでいた
                      kare wa shinbun o yonde ita
                      he was reading the newspaper

                      映画はもう始まっていた
                      eiga wa mou hajimatte ita
                      The movie had already begun

                      Note the difference between V-te ita and V-ta in the last sentence:

                      映画はもう始まった
                      eiga wa mou hajimatta
                      The movie already started

                      The difference between V-te ita and V-ta is not simple expecially for a non native english speaker like me... so.. if you want to go further in this topic.. you better search for more infos on internet ^^

                      oooooooook, V-te iru is DONE! Yeah, this is a bit hard.. there are a lot of thing to remember O_O
                      Next lesson we will continue with the use of V-te with other auxiliary verbs.. there is still A LOT to say! · close

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