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DottDivine

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dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 6 years ago. He owns like 643 Jpops and was last seen here about 7 hours ago

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  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #39 - Time Clauses (Part 2)

    Posted on 18 September, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 94 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

    ato (de) ---> 後(で)

    "ato" ends a time clause that means "After i did..."
    The verb in this time clause is at PAST tense (or nouns + no + ato (de)).

    テニスをした後、シャワーをあびた
    tenisu o shita ato, shawaa o abita
    After having played tennis, i took a shower

    江戸に幕府ができた後、江戸はよく発展した
    edo ni bakufu ga dekita ato, edo wa yoku hatten shita
    After the shogunate was estabilished in Edo,...

    Read more (769 words more)

    ato (de) ---> 後(で)

    "ato" ends a time clause that means "After i did..."
    The verb in this time clause is at PAST tense (or nouns + no + ato (de)).

    テニスをした後、シャワーをあびた
    tenisu o shita ato, shawaa o abita
    After having played tennis, i took a shower

    江戸に幕府ができた後、江戸はよく発展した
    edo ni bakufu ga dekita ato, edo wa yoku hatten shita
    After the shogunate was estabilished in Edo, the city developed well

    But this time clause, despite the past tense, can be used for future events too. Remember that the japanese past tense in dependent clause has no absolute temporal value, but it just tell that the action of the dependent clause happens before the action of the principal clause.

    あした、映画を見た後でレストランへ行こう
    ashita, eiga o mita ato de resutoran e ikou
    Tomorrow, after seeing a movie, we'll go to a restorant

    V-te kara

    if "kara" is used with V-te in a dependent clause it ends a clause that may have 2 meanings:

    -"After i did..." just as "ato (de)"

    映画を見てから、ホテルへ行きましょう
    eiga o mite kara, hoteru e ikimashou
    After seeing a movie, let's go in hotel

    宿題が終わってからテニスをした
    shukudai ga owatte kara tenisu o shita
    After having finished homework, i played tennis

    Remember that "kara" has temporal meaning only with V-te!

    - when the principal clause has a stative verb or a verb in continuous form (V-te iru), the meaning of the time clause is "Since when..."

    彼は大学に入ってからずっと東京に住んでいる
    kare wa daigaku ni haitte kara zutto toukyou ni sunde iru
    Since when he entered in university, he live in Tokyo

    父はごはんを食べてから、ずっと畑にいます
    chichi wa gohan o tabete kara, zutto hatake ni imasu
    After lunch, my father is always in the field

    aida (ni) ---> 間(に)

    "aida" ends a time clause that mean "While..." or "Until..."
    It is often used when the subject of the subordinate is different from the subject of the principal.
    If the verb is an action verb, it must be used in V-te iru form and obviously it can't be in past form (actions in subordinate and principal clause happen at the sime time).

    おじいさんが寝ている間、静かにしなければならない
    ojii-san ga nete iru aida, shizuka ni shinakereba naranai
    While the grandfather sleeps, we must be quiet

    涼しい間に、出かけよう
    suzushii aida ni, dekakeyou
    While it's cool, let's go out
    With principal clause with verbs in past tense, it can be used for past events.

    先生がいない間に、黒板にいたずら書きをした
    sensei ga inai aida ni, kokuban ni itazura kaki o shita
    While the teacher wasn't there, i doodled on the blackboard

    The difference between "aida" and "aida ni" is important. With "aida" you mean "all the time" while "aida ni" is used in all other cases.
    Let's look to this example:

    客が来ている間、子供たちはうるさかった
    kyaku ga kite iru aida, kodomotachi wa urusukatta
    While the guest was here, the kids were noisy.

    ---> During all the time of the action of the subordinate (guest being there), the action of the principal (kodomotachi being noisy) happened

    客が来ている間に、電話がかかってきた
    kyaku ga kite iru aida ni, denwa ga kakatte kita
    While the guest was here, a phone call arrived

    ---> the action of the principal (phone call arrived) happened while the action of the subordinate (guest being there) was happening, but it didn't last for all the time, it was just a moment.

    B4 + uchi ni

    If you remember, "V-nai + uchi ni" means "Before an inconvenient happens.."
    When the verb is affermative, "uchi ni" has the exact same meaning of "aida ni"
    With action verb, the verb must be in V-te form just as "aida ni"

    父がいるうちにそれを話しておこう
    chichi ga iru uchi ni sore o hanashite okou
    While dad is here, let's talk to him about that

    元気なうちにしたいことをしたほうがいい
    genkina uchi ni shitai koto o shita houga ii
    Until you are in good health, you better do what do you want

    made

    Pay attention to the difference between "made" and "made ni"
    As we already saw, "made ni" means "Before..." while "made" means "Until..."

    母が帰ってくるまでいてください
    haha ga kaette kuru made ite kudasai
    Stay here until mom returns please

    私は彼が本当のことを言うまで待った
    watashi wa kare ga hontou no koto iu made matta
    I waited until he said the truth

    tabi ni / goto ni

    They mean "Every time that..."

    雨がふるたびに買い物に行かされた
    ame ga furu tabi ni kaimono ni ikasareta
    Everytimes it was raining, she sent me to do the shopping

    日曜日ごとに動物園へいく
    nichiyoubi goto ni doubutsuen e iku
    He goes to the zoo every sunday

    Note that even if it may be considered theoretically possible (since the action of the subordinate can happen before the action of the principal), "V-ta tabi ni/goto ni" is NOT used. · close

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    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #38 - Time Clauses

      Posted on 9 September, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 266 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

      As promised, let's start talking about dependent clauses.
      Dependent clauses are just normal sentences that end with a particular word that help you to understand what kind of clause it is. Dependent clauses precede the principal clause.

      We'll start with time clauses.

      toki (ni) ---> 時(に)

      This is the base time clause "When......"
      Verb and adjectives are used in B4, nouns as "N no toki".

      新聞を読む時、めがねをかける
      shinbun o...

      Read more (819 words more)

      As promised, let's start talking about dependent clauses.
      Dependent clauses are just normal sentences that end with a particular word that help you to understand what kind of clause it is. Dependent clauses precede the principal clause.

      We'll start with time clauses.

      toki (ni) ---> 時(に)

      This is the base time clause "When......"
      Verb and adjectives are used in B4, nouns as "N no toki".

      新聞を読む時、めがねをかける
      shinbun o yomu toki, megane o kakeru
      When i read the newspaper, i put glasses on

      暑い時は、窓を開けましょう
      atsui toki wa, mado o akemashou
      When it's hot, let's open the windows

      真剣の時は、必ず早く起きる
      shinken no toki wa, kanarazu hayaku okiru
      when i have an exam, i always wake up early

      Time and politeness of the sentence is established by the verb of the principal clause. The verb in the time clause is in its base form and it hasn't temporal value. It simply means that the action in the time clause happens at the same time of the action in the principal clause.

      買い物に行く時、銀行に寄った
      kaimono ni iku toki, ginkou ni yotta
      When i went shopping, I dropped in the bank

      暇な時に、よくいっしょにつりに行った
      himana toki ni, yoku issho ni tsuri ni itta
      When we had free time, we often went to fish together

      The use of "toki" or "toki ni" is up to you, but the whole time clause can be the subject of the sentence.. in that case it will be ".... toki wa".

      It's possible, anyway, to have a past verb in the time clause with "toki".
      In this case it means that the action of the time clause happens BEFORE the action of the principal clause.
      Give a look to these examples:

      絵を書く時、彼は酒を飲みます
      e o kaku toki, kare wa sake o nomimasu
      When he paints, he drinks sake

      絵を書いた時、彼は酒を飲みます
      e o kaita toki, kare wa sake o nomimasu
      After he paints, he drinks sake

      The first sentence means that before painting or in the meanwhile, he drinks sake.
      The second sentence means that he paints first and THEN he drinks.

      Another example:

      日本へ行く時, 彼は薬をたくさん買った
      nihon e iku toki, kare wa kusuri o takusan katta
      When he went to Japan he bought many medicine

      日本へ行った時、彼は薬をたくさん買った
      nihon e itta toki, kare wa kusuri o takusan katta
      When he went to Japan he bought many medicine

      The 2 sentences can even be translated in the same way, but the meaning is different.
      With the first sentence you mean that he bought medicine before going to Japan.
      With the second, instead, the action "went to Japan" happens before "bought medicine".. so you mean that he bought medicine in Japan and not before the departure.

      to

      We already saw "to" used in "If clauses", but you can't make confusion.
      When the tense of the verb of the principal is at present, "to" ends an "if clause".
      When the tense of the verb of the principal is at past, "to" ends a time clause.

      "to" may be used to express:

      - 2 consecutive actions of the same person with the meaning of "As soon as.... , he..."

      彼は家に帰るとすぐふろに入った
      kare wa ie ni kaeru to sugu huro ni haitta
      As soon as he was back home, he took a bath

      - "When he did..., he noticed that.."

      よく見ると、その男は顔にきずあとがあった
      yoku miru to, sono otoko wa kao ni kizuato ga atta
      When i looked closely, I noticed that the man had a scar on the face

      ドアを開けると、社長がいた
      doa o akeru to, shachou ga ita
      When i opened the door, I realized he was the president

      mae (ni) ---> 前(に)

      "mae" ends time clauses that mean "Before.."
      The verb in this time clause can only be at PRESENT tense and AFFERMATIVE. And it can't be a stative verb.
      It can't be used with adjectives (only as "adjective ni naru/suru)
      While nouns are used as "N no mae (ni)"

      泳ぐ前に、体操をしなさい
      oyogu mae ni, taisou o shinasai
      Before swimming, do some exercise

      雨が降る前に、出かけたほうがいい
      ame ga furu mae ni, dekaketa hou ga ii
      Before it rains, it's better to leave

      寒くになる前に、ジャケットを買っておこう
      samuku ni naru mae ni, jaketto o katte okou
      Before it becomes cold, I'll buy a jacket

      The difference between "mae ni" and "mae" alone is that the first adresses to a specific moment while the second is more indefinite.

      Other ways to say "Before..."

      V-nai uchi ni

      It means "Before an inconvenience happens..."

      雨が降らないうちに、帰ったほうがいいですよ
      ame ga furanai uchi ni, kaetta houga ii desu yo
      Before it rain, It's better if you go back home

      叱られないうちに, 先生にあゆまろう
      shikararenai uchi ni, sensei ni ayumarou
      Before being scolded, let's apologize to the teacher

      Even if the verb of the time clause is negative, the meaning is affermative.

      made ni

      It means "Before...." and it put emphasis on the deadline.

      客たち来るまでに、掃除をしょう
      kyakutachi kuru made ni, souji o shou
      Before the guests come, let's clean

      橋が落ちるまでに、知らせなければならない
      hashi ga ochiru made ni, shirasenakereba naranai
      They must be informed before the bridge falls.

      In the next lesson the remanining time clauses ^^ · close

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      • Let's learn Japanese Together - Lesson #37 - Like/Dislike

        Posted on 6 September, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 427 views · 1 comments · 1 likes

        This will be a simple lesson ^^ And it will be the last one before we'll finally start talking about dependent clause.. yeah! Our sentences will become a bit more complicated ^^

        Sukina - Kiraina

        In japanese, you can use these 2 Na-adjectives to tell what you like and what you dislike. They can also be used to express "love" and "hate".

        Since they are Na-adjectives, you should not have problem using them ^^

        X wa N ga suki da/desu ---> X likes...

        Read more (346 words more)

        This will be a simple lesson ^^ And it will be the last one before we'll finally start talking about dependent clause.. yeah! Our sentences will become a bit more complicated ^^

        Sukina - Kiraina

        In japanese, you can use these 2 Na-adjectives to tell what you like and what you dislike. They can also be used to express "love" and "hate".

        Since they are Na-adjectives, you should not have problem using them ^^

        X wa N ga suki da/desu ---> X likes N
        X wa N ga kirai da/desu ---> X dislikes N

        私は魚が好きだ
        watashi wa sakana ga suki da
        I like fish

        彼女はフットサルが嫌いです
        kanojo wa futtosaru ga kirai desu
        She dislike football

        When in a sentence you say "X likes A but doesn't like B", the particle "wa" substitute the particle "ga"

        母はコーヒーは好きですが紅茶はではありません
        haha wa koohii wa suki desu ga koucha wa suki dewa arimasen
        My mother likes coffe but she doesn't like tea

        Note that "ga" here is not a particle but an adversative conjunction.

        Like any other adjective, sukina and kiraina can be used in attributive form.

        彼が好きな歌はこれです
        kare ga sukina uta wa kore desu
        The song he likes is this

        あなたが嫌いな飲み物はどれですか
        anata ga kiraina nomimono wa dore desuka
        Which is the drink you don't like?

        When you want to say "I like/dislike to do something", you have to nominalize the verb using "koto" o "no"

        私はピアノをひくことが好きです
        watashi wa piano o hiku koto ga suki desu
        I like to play the piano

        彼女は歌うのはすきだが踊るのは嫌いだ
        kanojo wa utau no wa suki da ga odoru no wa kirai da
        She likes to sing but she dislike to dance

        When you want to say that you like/dislike something more than something else you have to use the comparative structure

        彼女は踊ることより歌うことのほうがすきだ
        kanojo wa odoru koto yori utau koto no hou ga suki da
        She likes to sing more than dancing

        Remember that sukina and kiraida express a long lasting feeling and NOT momentary.
        So if, at the end of a movie, you want to ask "Did you like the movie?" you can't say "eiga ga suki deshitaka"
        cause this sentence mean "have you liked the movie time ago? (cause now you don't like it anymore)"

        You can say:
        eiga wa yokatta desuka
        eiga wa omoshirokatta desuka
        eiga ga ki ni irimashitaka [the structure is "X wa N ga ki ni iru] · close

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        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #36 - Give and Recieve

          Posted on 31 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 93 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

          Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

          To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

          ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

          UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
          SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar pe...

          Read more (1019 words more)

          Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

          To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

          ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

          UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
          SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar person and people considered socially superior

          Depending on the direction of the "give" and "recieve" you'll have to use different verbs

          To give

          In japanese there are 3 verbs that mean "to give": AGERU - KURERU - YARU

          Ageru

          This verb is used when the direction of "give" is toward right:

          ME gives to Uchi and Soto
          Uchi gives to Uchi and Soto
          Soto gives to Soto

          The structure is simple:

          X wa Y ni N o ageru

          X is the person who gives
          Y is the person who recieves
          N is the thing given

          So the meaning is simply: "X gives N to Y"

          私は父にネクタイをあげよう
          watashi wa chichi ni nekutai o ageyou
          I'll give a necktie to my father

          父は隣の人に松をあげた
          chichi wa tonari no hito ni matsu o ageta
          My father gave a pine to the neighbour

          田中さんは山田さんに切手をあげた
          tanaka-san wa yamada-san ni kitte o ageta
          Tanaka gave a stamp to Yamada

          "ageru" has a humble form "sashiageru". This is part of the so called "keigo" that is the japanese honorific way of talking. When you talk with a person that is considered superior, you have to use keigo to show him respect.
          "sashiageru" is used when the person who recieve is superior to the person who gives.

          弟は先生に絵をさしあげました
          otouto wa sensei ni e o sashiagemashita
          My younger brother gave a draw to the teacher

          Kureru

          Kureru is used when the direction of giving goes toward left:

          Soto gives to Uchi or Me
          Uchi gives to Me

          As you may notice, when the 2 persons are part of the same group "ageru" is used.

          The structure is the same:

          X wa Y ni N o kureru

          小島さん妹に劇の切符をくれた
          kojima-san imouto ni geki no kippu o kureta
          Mr.Kojima gave a ticket for the theater to my younger sister

          妹はその切符を私にくれた
          imouto wa sono kippu o watashi ni kureta
          My younger sister gave that ticket to me

          Also "kureru" has its humble form "kudasaru".
          Pay attention: "kudasaru" is used when the person who GIVES is superior to the the person who recieve.

          先生は子供におもちゃをくださった
          sensei wa kodomo ni omocha kudasatta
          The teacher gave a toy to my son

          Yaru

          Yaru is used only when:

          -the person who recieves is clearly inferior
          -the person who recieves is an animal
          -among male friends

          妹にスカートをやる
          imouto ni sukaato o yaru
          I'll give a skirt to my younger sister

          This is just a little different from "imouto ni sukaato o ageru". It implies that "the younger sister" is "inferior".

          お母さん、ねこにごはんをやってね
          okaasan, neko ni gohan o yatte ne
          Mom, feed the cat ok? (lit. give the food to the cat)

          僕は井上にあの本をやった
          boku wa inoue ni ano hon o yatta
          I gave that book to Inoue

          To recieve

          There is only one verb that means "to recieve": "morau"

          Morau

          The direction of recieving goes toward left:

          Me recieves from Uchi or Soto
          Uchi recieves from Uchi or Soto
          Soto recieves from Soto

          If Soto or Uchi recieve something from Me, you can't use "morau" but you have to invert the sentence and use ageru.

          The structure is:

          Y wa N ni/kara N o morau

          Y is the person who recieve
          X is the person who gives
          N is the things recieved

          The meaning is simply: "Y recieve N from X"

          Obviously, it's just the opposite of ageru/kureru/yaru

          弟は父からおもちゃをもらった
          otouto wa chichi kara omocha o moratta
          My younger brother recieved a toy from dad

          まりこさんはみずきさんに本をもらったそうだ
          mariko-san wa mizuki-san ni hon o moratta souda
          It seems that Mariko recieved a book from Mizuki

          If "X" is an organization like a "company" or "school", you can use only "kara" and not "ni"

          会社から野球の切符をもらった
          kaisha kara yakyuu no kippu o moratta
          I recieved a ticket for baseball from the company

          Also "morau" has a humble form "itadaku".
          It's used when who recieves is inferior.

          部長から写真をいただきました
          buchou kara shashin o itadakimashita
          I recieved a photo from the boss

          V-te Ageru/Kureru/Yaru/Morau

          The same system of giving and recieving is used when someone do something from someone else and viceversa.
          In fact, ageru, kureru, yaru and morau haven't only the material meaning of £give" and "recieve" and when they are used with "V-te" they mean "to do something for someone"

          "Y" used in the previous examples is the person who takes advantage from the action done by "X"

          母は着物をもってくれました
          haha wa kimono o motte kuremashita
          My mother made a kimono for me

          その仕事を手伝ってあげましょうか
          sono shigoto o tetsudatte agemashou ka
          Do you want that i help you with that work?

          when X and Y are "watashi" and "anata" they are often omitted cause it's clear from the context.

          店員はプレゼントをきれいに包んでくれた
          ten'in wa purezento o kirei ni tsutsunde kureta
          The clerk wrapped the present in a nice way (for me)

          ねこの背中を撫でてやりました
          neko no senaka o nadete yarimashita
          I patted on the cat's back

          きのう先生から彼に離したいただいた
          kinou sensei kara kare ni hanashite itadaita
          Yesterday, the teacher talked to him (for me)

          The last sentence shows how it's not that easy to use this kind of sentences.
          In english the subject is "teacher" cause "teacher" is the one who "talk to him".
          But using "V-te morau" you want to point out that the teacher is doing you a favour or you would have simply said "sensei wa kare ni hanashimashita".
          While with the sentence you are saying:
          sensei kara [..] itadaita ---> I received (a favour) from the teacher
          which favour?
          kare ni hanashite --> to talk to him · close

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          • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #35 - If clauses (part 2)

            Posted on 26 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 105 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

            So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
            We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

            V-tara

            V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
            With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
            With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

            V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followe...

            Read more (1033 words more)

            So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
            We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

            V-tara

            V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
            With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
            With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

            V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followed by an apodosis expressing an opinion, advice, request, volitive or a guess.
            But it hasn't the same meaning of "nara".
            In fact, V-tara has the meaning of "when..." and not only "if..". Obviously, the clause with "when" express a condition that has to happen before the action in the principal clause.

            大阪に着いたら手紙を書いてください
            oosaka ni tsuitara tegami o kaite kudasai
            When you arrive in Osaka, write me a letter please

            車が治ったら山に行こう
            kuruma ga naottara yama ni ikou
            when (if) the car will be repaired, we'll go to the mountain

            It also have the meaning of "If, by chance, it happens that.."

            彼に見られたら恥ずかしい
            kare ni miraretara hazukashii
            It's emberrassing to be seen with him (If it happens that i'm seen with him, it's embarrassing)

            時間があったら映画を見に行こう
            jikan ga attara eiga o mi ni ikou
            If there is time, let's go to see a movie

            寒かったら大変だ
            samukattara taihen da
            If it's cold, it's troublesome

            私だったらそんなこはしない
            watashi dattara sonna koto wa shinai
            If it was me, i wouldn't do it

            Differences between V-ba, nara and V-tara

            Before talking about "to" that has it's particular use.. let's see the differences between these 3 ways to express a conditional period since they are similar.

            Temporal relation between protasis (P) and apodosis (A)

            Let's see this 3 sentences:

            ---------P----------------------------------A----------
            1)nihon e ikeba--------------sushi ga taberareru
            2)nihon e iku nara-----------sushi ga taberareru
            3)nihon e ittara--------------sushi ga taberareru

            Only V-tara tell that (P) happens before (A), so sentence 3 is "When you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi" "Once you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi"
            In sentence 1 and 2 (P) may happens both before or after (A).. so the translation is more hypothetical "If you go to Japan, you can eat sushi"
            The only difference is that with V-ba, (P) usually happens before (A), while with "nara" it may be both.
            Let's see other 3 examples to explain it:

            -----------P----------------------------------A---------
            1)nihon e ikeba-------------nihongo ga benkyou dekiru
            2)nihon e iku nara----------nihongo o oshiete ageyou
            3)nihon e ittara-------------nihongo o oshiete morainasai

            Again, in sentence 3 (P) happens before (A) "Since you have been in Japan, teach me japanese"
            In sentence 1, (P) happens before (A) "If you go to Japan, you can study Japanese" (there, in Japan)
            In sentence 2, (P) may happens both before or after (A) "If/When you go to Japan, teach me japanese". The sentence is good both if you ask to be teached japanese before he goes to Japan or once he is in Japan.
            Anyway, talking about temporal relation, you can consider V-ba and "nara" as almost the same thing.

            General condition vs Specific condition

            V-ba is used for general condition that has a consequence that usually happens. "If you... it always happens that.."
            While nara and V-tara are used for specific condition, single events. "When you... it happened that..."

            suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuku --> If you switch on, the radio turns on (normal event, it always happens)
            suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuita --> Every time i switched on, the radio turned on
            suicchi o hinettara rajio ga tsuita --> When i switched on, the radio turned on (you are describing the single event)

            Restriction depending of the kind of sentence in the apodosis

            V-ba is the one that expresses objectivity the most, so is usually not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a request, volitive, exhortative, imperative, a guess or prohibition.
            In that case use nara or V-tara.

            to

            "to" is used for natural events that happen regularly, habits, math and scientific rules, so the apodosis always expresses a natural and logic consequence.

            春になると花が咲きます
            haru ni naru to hana ga sakimasu
            When spring comes, flowers bloom

            3に2を足すと5になる
            3 ni 2 o tasu to 5 ni naru
            If you add 2 to 3, it becomes 5 (or simply 3+2=5 :D)

            雨が降るとここはよく洪水になる
            ame ga furu to koko wa yoku kouzui ni naru
            When it rains, this place is often flooded

            私が行くといつも彼女はケーキを作れる
            watashi ga iku to itsumo kanojo wa keeki o tsukureru
            When i go, she always make me a cake

            Just as V-ba, "to" is not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a guess, request, volitive etc...

            haru ni naru to hana o uemasu --> when spring comes flowers are planted
            haru ni naru uemashou---> is WRONG!

            To say "when spring comes, let's plant flowers", you have to use nara or V-tara. In this case V-tara is probably better.
            haru ni nattara uemashou --> When spring will arrive, let's plant flowers

            Real hypothesis

            When the condition is no more than a simple hypothesis, V-ba, nara, V-tara and to are used with hypothetical adverbs "moshi" or "mangaichi". In this case they must always be translated with "If.."

            もし彼が家にいれば会えます
            moshi kare ga ie ni ireba aemasu
            If he is at home, you can meet him

            万が一彼が来なかったらどうしよう
            mangaichi kare ga konakattara doushiyou
            If by chance he doesn't come, what would i do?

            もしインドにも行くならおみやげを買ってきてください
            moshi indo ni mo iku nara omiyage o katte kite kudasai
            If you go in India too, buy me a present please

            万が一ガラスが割れるとけがをしますよ
            mangaichi garasu ga wareru to kega o shimasu yo
            If the glass breaks, you'll get injured
            Unrealizable hypothesis

            This is an hypothesis on an event that can't be realized, so the action in the apodosis won't happen. The apodosis often ends with "noni"

            もっと安ければあのドレスを買うのに
            motto yasukereba ano doresu o kau noni
            If it was cheaper, I would buy that dress

            But the hypothesis is not true, cause actually that dress is not cheaper, so you won't buy it

            皆がよく働いたらもっと早く終わっただろうのに
            mina ga yoku hataraitara motto hayaku owatta darou noni
            If everyone had worked better, we would have probably finished earlier

            あしたでないならその会に行けるのに
            ashita de nai nara sono kai ni ikeru noni
            If it wasn't tomorrow, i could go to the meeting · close

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            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #34 - If clauses

              Posted on 23 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 170 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

              The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
              Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

              CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
              If .......... + then.....

              B5 + ba

              This represents the conditional forms...

              Read more (741 words more)

              The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
              Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

              CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
              If .......... + then.....

              B5 + ba

              This represents the conditional forms of verbs and adjectives. I will simply call it V-ba from now on.
              The verbs in V-Ba is used in the protasis.

              If the V-ba verb is an "action verb", you can't use volitive, exhortative, imperative, request, prohibition or advice in the apodosis.

              この薬を飲めば、治りますよ
              kono kusuri o nomeba naorimasu yo
              If you take this medicine, you'll get well

              この大学を出れば、いい会社に入れる
              kono daigaku o dereba ii kaisha ni haireru
              If i graduate from this university, I'll enter in a good company

              With stative verbs or adjective there are no restriction for the verb of the apodosis

              高くなければ会なさい
              takakunakereba kai nasai
              If it's not expensive, buy it

              日本へ行きたければ日本語を習ったほうがいいですよ
              nihon e ikitakereba nihongo o natta houga ii desu yo
              If you want to go to Japan, you better learn japanese

              B5+ba is the only form of V-ba, but even if V-ba hasn't a past form.. it can describe a past event if the verb of the apodosis is in past tense.
              In this case it describe an HABITUAL action and NOT a single action (to describe a single action in a past conditional period you have to use "tara".. one of the other conditional forms)

              あの人に頼めば必ず教えてくれた
              ano hito ni tanomeba kanarazu oshiete kureta
              If i asked that man, he always answered

              Compare it with this sentence with "tara":

              あの人に頼んだらすぐ教えてくれた
              ano hito ni tanondara sugu oshiete kureta
              WHEN i asked him, he immediately answered

              Nara

              Verbs (B4) + nara
              I-Adjectives (B4) + nara
              Na-Adjectives (root) + nara
              Nouns + nara

              When "nara" is used with a verb at present tense, it expresses a contitional clause on present or future event. This kind of protasis is usually followed by an apodosis that expresses a judgement, a guess, volitive or the opinion of the talker. It's rarely used with objective apodosis. You can consider "nara" complementary to V-ba in this case. When you can't use V-ba, you can use "nara".
              The subject of the protasis is usually at 2nd or 3rd person.

              あすいい天気なら行こう
              asu ii tenki nara ikou
              if tomorrow the weather is good, i'll go

              いい天気ではないなら行くまい
              ii tenki dewanai nara ikumai
              If the weather is not good, i won't go

              あなたが歌うなら私も歌います
              anata ga utau nara watashi mo utaimasu
              If you sing, I'll sing too

              日本へ行くなら日本語を勉強しておきなさい
              nihon e iku nara nihongo o benkyou shite okinasai
              If you go to Japan, study japanese
              Since you go to Japan, study japanese (first)

              ケーキを作るなら私にも一切れください
              keeki o tsukuru nara watashi ni mo ichi kire kudasai
              If (Since) you make a cake, give a piece to me too

              Used with verbs in past tense, it expresses a conditional clause on a past event that it's surely already happened. So it means "Since...., then.."

              ローマへ行ったならバチカンへも行ったでしょう
              rooma e itta nara bachikan e mo itta deshou
              Since you have been in Rome, you probably visited Vatican too

              彼に会ったならそのことを知っている
              kare ni atta nara sono koto o shitte iru
              Since you met him, you should know that thing

              "nara" can be used in conditional period with apodosis that expresses an advice/opinion.
              In this case the sentence is translated "If you want to.. then (i advice you to)..."

              テレビを買うならあの店が安いですよ
              terebi o kau nara ano mise ga yasui desu yo
              If you want to buy a TV, that store has low prices (--> so i advice you to go there)

              アメリカへ行くならぜひ ニューヨークへ行きなさい
              amerika e iku nara zehi nyuuyouku e ikinasai
              If you go to USA, you absolutely have to go to New York

              As we saw before, nara doesn't express only hypothesis but also verified/already happened events. So it doesn't only mean "if.." but also "Since..".
              Japanese has other expressions that can be used instead of "nara" when it means "Since.."

              They are: to suruto, to shitara, to sureba, to naruto.

              They are used at the end of the protasis with verbs in B3, and they are followed by the principal clauses

              彼は来ないとすると奥さんも来ないだろう
              kare wa konai to suruto okusan mo konai darou
              Since he doesn't come, his wife won't probably come too

              きのう彼は酒を飲みすぎたとなると今日頭がいたい
              kinou kare wa sake o nomi sugita to naruto kyou atama ga itai
              Since he drank too much yesterday, today he has headache

              Next lesson: the other 2 conditional forms: "tara" and "to" · close

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              • Let's Jap Together - Les. #33 - Guess/Uncert. - souda / kamo shirenai / hazu da

                Posted on 21 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 143 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

                souda / soudesu

                Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
                Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

                With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
                But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
                It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
                Let's look at this example:

                kono ringo wa oishi souda-...

                Read more (778 words more)

                After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

                souda / soudesu

                Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
                Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

                With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
                But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
                It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
                Let's look at this example:

                kono ringo wa oishi souda---> this apple looks delicious
                kono ringo wa ama souda---> this apple looks sweet
                kono ringo wa mazu souda---> this apple looks bad tasting
                kono ringo wa furu souda---> this apple looks old

                This sentence are all correct and they are made looking at the apple. The look of the apple makes the talker think that the apple may be "delicious" "sweet" "bad tasting" "old"

                You can't use souda with adjectives like "akai" (red) "ookii" (big) "marui" (rounded).. cause you are looking at the apple, so you can tell if it's red, big or rounded... you are not guessing.

                If it happens that you are far from the apple and you have to say "That apples seems red", you have to use youda or rashii --> "ano ringo wa akai youda"/"ano ringo wa akai rashii"

                Souda can also be used to make a guess on a future events that it seems they are going to happen soon. Also this guess is based on ocular observation.

                今にも雨が降りそうだ
                ima ni mo ame ga furi souda
                It looks like it's gonna rain soon

                このバスは止まりそうです
                kno basu wa tomari soudesu
                It seems that this bus is going to stop

                With potential verbs souda means "it looks like he can..." "it seems he can.."

                この車はまだ使えそうだ
                kono kuruma wa mada tsukae souda
                It looks like this car can still be used

                あの会社には入れそうではない
                ano kaisha ni wa haire soudewanai
                It seems i can't enter in that company

                Souda can be used in an attributive form and an adverbial form.
                The attributive form is "souna" while the adverbial is "souni"

                彼は高そうな車を買った
                kare wa taka souna kuruma o katta
                he bought a car that looks expensive

                彼はうれしそうに話した
                kare wa ureshi souni hanashita
                he spoke happily (he spoke in a way that looked happy)

                Now compre these sentences:

                ima ni mo ame ga furi souda --> It looks like is going to rain soon
                ame ga futte iru youda --> It seems it's raining (told by someone in direct contact with the rain)
                nihon de wa rokugatsu ni ame ga yoku furu youda (rashii) --> it seems that (i heard that) in japan it rains a lot on June
                tabun ashita ame ga furu darou --> It will probably rain tomorrow (subjective guess)

                kamo shirenai / kamo shiremasen

                Verbs: B4 + kamo shirenai
                I-Adjectives: B4 + kamo shirenai
                Na-Adjectives: Root + kamo shirenai
                Nouns: N + kamo shirenai

                With kamo shirenai you make a guess that is the most unsure among all the way we have seen. Who talks is not sure at all of what he is saying.

                私はいくかもしれないし行かないかもしれない
                watashi wa iku kamo shirenai shi ikanai kamo shirenai
                Maybe i'll go, maybe i won't go

                彼は音楽家かもしれない
                kare wa ongaguka kamo shirenai
                He may be a musician (but i'm not sure)

                Compare these sentences:

                kare wa kunai kamo shirenai --> Perhaps he won't come (i'm not sure)
                kare wa kunai darou --> He'll probably won't come
                kare wa kunai rashii --> I heard he won't come
                kare wa kunai youda --> It seems he won't come

                hazu da/desu

                Verbs: B4 + hazu da
                Adjectives: B4 + hazu da
                Nouns: N no hazu da

                This form means "It's supposed to.."
                In fact this is not normal guess, we are talking about something that we expect to happen or it should have already happened.

                彼は三時に駅に着くはずだ
                kare wa sanji ni eki ni tsuku hazu da
                He is supposed to arrive at the station at 3 o'clock

                授業はもう終わったはずだ
                jugyou wa mou owatta hazu da
                The lesson should have already finished

                The negative form of "hazu da" is "hazu ga (wa) nai"and it means "It's not possible that.."

                彼がそんなことを言うはずがない
                kare wa sonna koto o iu hazu ga nai
                It's not possible that he says something like that

                -ni chigai nai / -ni kimatte iru

                Even if this forms are still a guess, the talker is really sure of what he is saying. It means "No doubt that.." "It must..." "Surely..."

                彼が選ばれるにちがいない
                kare ga erabareru ni chigai nai
                No doubt that he will be elected

                そんなことをしたら先に叱られるにきまっている
                sonna koto o shitara sensei ni shikarareru ni kimatte iru
                If you do something like that, you'll surely be scolded by the teacher · close

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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #32 - Guess/Uncertainty - rashii /youda

                  Posted on 17 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 172 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                  Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

                  rashii

                  rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
                  So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
                  To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
                  Just as darou/deshou, you have to ad...

                  Read more (304 words more)

                  Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

                  rashii

                  rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
                  So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
                  To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
                  Just as darou/deshou, you have to add it at the end of the sentence to transform an affermative sentence into a guess.

                  Verbs: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
                  I-Adjectives: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
                  Na-Adjectives: root + rashii/rashii desu
                  Nouns: N+ rashii/rashii desu

                  The negative guess can be made by both conjugating the verb of the sentence or conjugating rashii (rashikunai).


                  あに人は山中さんらしい
                  ano hito wa yamanaka-san rashii
                  That man seems Yamanaka-san

                  どろぼうもう出て行ったらしく、物音が止めた
                  dorobou wa mou dete itta rashiku, monooto ga yameta
                  It looks like the robber is already gone, the noises stopped

                  あした鉄道はストで止まるらしいです
                  ashita tetsudou wa suto de tomaru rashii desu
                  I heard that the trains will stop tomorrow due to strike

                  あの人は病気らしい
                  ano hito wa byouki rashii
                  As far as i know, that man is sick

                  彼はみずきと結婚しないらしい
                  kare wa mizuki to kekkon shinai rashii
                  I heard that he won't marry Mizuki

                  youda/youdesu

                  Verbs: B4 + youda/youdesu
                  I-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
                  Na-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
                  Nouns: N no youda/youdesu

                  youda is used, just like rashii, to make a guessing with some foundation due to observation but it also add a psychological participation.
                  He can be translated as "It seems.." "As far as i know.."

                  父はもう帰ってきたようだ
                  chichi wa mou kaette kita youda
                  It seems my father is already returned

                  雨が降っているようだった
                  ame ga futte iru youdatta
                  It seemed it was raining

                  彼はダンススクールに通っているようだ
                  kare wa dansu sukuuru ni kayotte iru youda
                  As far as i know, he is attending a dance school

                  火はもう消えたようです
                  hi wa mou kieta youdesu
                  It seems that the fire is already extinguished

                  youda is also used to express subjective impressions and for guessing on your own behaviour

                  その話は以前どこかで聞いたようだ
                  sono hanashi wa izen dokoka de kiita youda
                  I think i already heard this story somewhere [以前-->izen-->previously]

                  私はま違っていたようだ
                  watashi wa machigatte ita youda
                  It seems i was wrong · close

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                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #31 - Guess/Uncertainty - darou/deshou

                    Posted on 15 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 87 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

                    In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
                    The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

                    Darou / Deshou

                    This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
                    The...

                    Read more (673 words more)

                    In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
                    The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

                    Darou / Deshou

                    This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
                    The meaning is "I think that.." "Maybe..." "Perhaps.." "It may/might..."
                    The structure is simple, you just have to add darou/deshou at the end of a sentence and they'll transform the affermative sentence into a guess.

                    Verbs: B3 + darou/deshou
                    I-Adj: B3 + darou/deshou
                    Na-Adj: root + darou/deshou
                    N: N + darou/deshou

                    おそらく彼は今晩行くだろう
                    osoraku kare wa konban iku darou
                    He'll probably go tonight

                    たぶん田中さんは映画に行かないだろう
                    tabun tanaka-san wa eiga ni ikanai darou
                    I think Tanaka-san doesn't go to the movies

                    あの建物はたぶん学校だろう
                    ano tatemono wa tabun gakkou darou
                    That building is probably a school

                    --The guess can also be done on past events:

                    母はもう東京についたでしょう
                    haha wa mou toukyou ni tsuita deshou
                    I think my mother is already arrived in Tokyo

                    --The guessing can be made involving the interlocutor using final particles as "ka" "ne" "yo" and "sa"
                    With "ka" we make a guess asking for an aswer from the interlocutor
                    With "ne" we make a guess asking for a confirmation from the interlocutor
                    With "yo" and "sa" we are expressing the fact that even if it's a guessing we are confident on what we are saying.

                    kare wa konban kuru deshou ka---> maybe he'll come tonight?
                    kare wa konban kuru deshou ne---> maybe he'll come tonight, isn't it?
                    kare wa konban kuru darou yo---> I'm quite sure he'll come tonight

                    When the guessing is expressed in interrogative form, darou/deshou are used instead of the other way to express uncertainty. The guessing can be direct to an interlocutor or also to yourself.

                    彼はまだあそこに住んでいるでしょうか
                    kare wa mada asoko ni sunde iru deshou ka
                    Do you know if he still live there?

                    あしたも雪だろうか
                    ashita mo yuki darou ka
                    I wonder if it'll snow tomorrow too

                    --When the guessing is made by a third person you have to use -to omotte iru (without darou/deshou)

                    彼は私が頭がいいと思っている
                    kare wa watashi ga atama ga ii to omotte iru
                    He thinks I'm smart

                    When the guessing was made in the past you have to use -to omotta

                    私は彼がもう帰ってこたいだろうと思った
                    watashi wa kare ga mou kaette konai darou to omotta
                    I thought that he would have never come back

                    --darou/deshou can be used in a conversation when who talks asks for a confirmation directly to the interlocutor with the meaning of "isn't it?"

                    君はその本を彼にもう返しただろう
                    kimi wa sono hon wo kare ni mou kaeshita darou
                    You have probably already returned that book, isn't it?

                    ほら、このセーターいいでしょう
                    hora, kono seetaa ii deshou
                    look, this sweater is nice, isn't it?

                    --this structure has also an honorary form:

                    Verbs: B2+ mashou/masudeshou
                    Na-Adj: root + de arimashou
                    N: N + de gozaimashou

                    便利だから学生に喜ばれましょう
                    benri da kare gakusei ni yorokobaremashou
                    Since it's useful, it will probably be appreciated by the students

                    たくさんのお金が必要でありましょう
                    takusan no okane ga hitsuyou de arimashou
                    A lot of money will probably be necessary [必要な-->hitsuyouna-->necessary]

                    Literary expressions

                    V-Godan: B1a + u
                    Other verbs: B1 + you
                    I-Adj: B1(-karo) + u
                    Na-Adj: root + dearou
                    N: N + dearou

                    Negative: B3 + mai
                    Emphatic Negative: B2 + wa shimai

                    大臣は辞任するこのになろう
                    daijin wa jinin suru koto ni narou
                    I think the minister will resign [大臣-->daijin-->minister 辞任する-->jinin suru--> to resign]

                    これは多くの反論が出てこよう
                    kore wa ooku no hanron ga dete koyou
                    About that, many opinion will probably come out [出て来る-->dete kuru-->To come out]

                    コートがなければさぞ寒かろう
                    kooto ga nakereba sazo samukarou
                    If he doesn't have the coat, i'm sure he'll be cold [さぞ-->sazo-->surely]

                    すぐにその問題を解決することが必要であろう
                    sugu ni sono mondai o kaiketsu suru koto ga hitsuyou dearou
                    It will probably be necessary to solve this problem immediately

                    ドルはもうこれ以上下がるまい
                    doru wa mou kore ijou sagarumai
                    I don't think the dollar will go down anymore
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                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #30 - Causative

                      Posted on 6 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 125 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                      Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

                      E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

                      V-Saseru

                      V. Godan: B1+seru
                      V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
                      kuru: kosaseru
                      suru: saseru

                      Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

                      kaku--->kakaseru
                      iu--->iwaseru
                      hanasu--->hanasaseru
                      yomu--->yomaseru
                      oyogu--->oyogaseru

                      deru--->desaseru
                      okiru--->okisaseru

                      Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

                      yomu-->...

                      Read more (944 words more)

                      Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

                      E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

                      V-Saseru

                      V. Godan: B1+seru
                      V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
                      kuru: kosaseru
                      suru: saseru

                      Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

                      kaku--->kakaseru
                      iu--->iwaseru
                      hanasu--->hanasaseru
                      yomu--->yomaseru
                      oyogu--->oyogaseru

                      deru--->desaseru
                      okiru--->okisaseru

                      Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

                      yomu-->read
                      yomaseru--> make (someone) read
                      yomasemasu--> make (someone) read (polite)
                      yomasenai--> don't make (someone) read
                      yomasemasen--> don't make (someone) read (polite)
                      yomaseta--> made (someone) read
                      yomasemashita--> made (someone) read (polite)
                      yomasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) read
                      yomasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) read
                      yomasete--> -te form

                      taberu--> eat
                      tabesaseru--> make (someone) eat
                      tabesasemasu--> make (someone) eat (polite)
                      tabesasenai--> don't make (someone) eat
                      tabesasemasen--> don't make (someone) eat (polite)
                      tabesaseta--> made (someone) eat
                      tabesasemashita--> made (someone) eat (polite)
                      tabesasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) eat
                      tabesasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) eat (polite)
                      tabesasete--> -te form

                      X wa Y ni N o V-Saseru ---> X make Y do N

                      This is the structure of the causative sentence with transitive verbs

                      母は妹に皿を洗わせた
                      haha wa imouto ni sara o arawaseta
                      My mother made my younger sister wash the dishes [皿-->sara-->dishes 洗う-->arau-->to wash]

                      彼女に田中さんを飛行場まで送らせよう
                      kanojo ni tanaka san o hikoujou made okuraseyou
                      I'll make her accompany tanaka-san till the airport [飛行場-->hikoujou-->airport 送る-->okuru-->to send]

                      The more complicated the sentence becomes, the most difficult is to make a literal translation. The translation of the last sentence in fact it's not. Sometime, you only have to understand the meaning and translate accordingly.

                      X wa Y ni/o V-Saseru

                      This is the structure of the causative sentence with intransitive verbs

                      社長は彼に/をイタリアへ行かせた
                      shachou wa kare ni/o itaria e ikaseta
                      The president made him go to Italy

                      どうして子供に/をプルで泳がせないのですか
                      doushite kodomo ni/o puru de oyogasenai no desuka
                      Why don't you make the kids swim in the pool?

                      The japanese causative express the idea of "make someone do", "push someone to do" but also the idea of "allow someone to do" "leave someone to do"

                      When it has the first meaning, it's like someone force someone else to do something. That's why is possibile, when "X" get an advantange by making "Y" doing something, to use the weakened form "-te morau"
                      "Morau" means "to recieve" but as i already said, in japanese "give/receive" are quite complicate... and we'll see them later.. for the moment just remember this option and look at this example:

                      私は田中さんに手紙を読ませた
                      watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yomaseta
                      I made tanaka read the letter

                      私は田中さんに手紙を読んでもらった
                      watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yonde moratta
                      I asked tanaka to read the letter for me

                      The second one is way more kind.

                      In the next sentences the causative has the second meaning:

                      もうおとななのだから、好きなようにさせましょう
                      mou otona nano dakara, sukina youni sasemashou
                      Since he is an adult already, let's leave him do what he likes

                      Translating the causative as "make him do what he likes" is a contradiction.. so it's better "leave him do".. cause this is the true meaning.

                      子供をここで遊ばせないでください
                      kodomo o koko de asobasenaide kudasai
                      Please, don't leave the kids play here

                      In this sentence, "don't make the children play here" would be still acceptable, but you understand that it's not that you "push" the kids to play there.. it's more like you "leave" the kids play there.

                      How to pick "ni" or "o"

                      - If there is another complement marked with "ni" use "o" and viceversa
                      - If Y is inanimate use "o"
                      mizu o koraseru (make the water freeze)
                      - If the verbs express a psycological reaction use "o"
                      sensei o komaraseru (make the sensei embarassed)
                      gakusei o warawaseru (make the students laugh)

                      Intransitive verbs that have a transitive version

                      Do you remember those intransitive verbs that also have a corresponding transitive version? no? I talked about them in lesson #16 ^^
                      Well, for those verbs, the causative form of the intransitive verbs has similar meaning of the transitive verb. So the transitive verb is generally used.

                      neru-->to sleep
                      nekasu--> to put to sleep

                      kodomo ga neru ---> the kid sleeps
                      kodomo o neraseru ---> I make the kid sleep (causative of neru)
                      kodomo o nekasu ---> I put the kid to sleep

                      noru--> to get on
                      noseru--> to make someone get on

                      haha ga kisha ni noru ---> my mother get on the train
                      haha o kisha ni noraseru --->I make my mother get on the train (causative of noru)
                      haha o kisha ni noseru ---> I make my mother get on the train

                      In both cases, the last sentence is used, even if the meaning may be slightly different

                      V-sasu

                      This is another way to make a verb causative. But this is used only in oral japanese, it's considered really colloquial.

                      V. Godan: B1+su
                      V. Ichidan: B1+sasu
                      kuru: kosasu
                      suru: sasu

                      Some examples:

                      kaku--->kakasu
                      iu--->iwasu
                      hanasu--->hanasasu
                      yomu--->yomasu
                      oyogu--->oyogasu

                      deru--->desasu
                      okiru--->okisasu

                      This causative form is conjugated like a godan verb endin in -su.
                      I don't conjugate it right now cause the lesson is already sooo long :D

                      All what i said for V-saseru is still valid for V-sasu too.. so i just make a pair of examples.

                      彼に本当のことを言わしましょう
                      kare ni hontou no koto o iwashimashou
                      Lets make him tell the truth

                      彼にこれを作らしてください
                      kare ni kore o tsukurashite kudasai
                      Make him do this please

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