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DottDivine

THX JPA ^_^
dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 6 years ago. He owns like 1,424 Jpops and was last seen here about 4 hours ago

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  • Let's Learn Japanese Together Lesson #41 - Adversative/Concessive Clause

    Posted on 10 October, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 134 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

    The structure of these sentences is :

    Subordinate clause + conjunction + Principal clause

    When the subordinate clause expresses a real, happened or verified fact

    ga / keredo(mo)

    Verbs/Adjectives: B3 + ga/keredo(mo)
    Nouns: N + da + ga/keredo(mo)

    The meaning of these conjunctions is simply "but" "however"

    行きたかったけれどもお金がなくて行けませんでした
    ikitakatta keredomo okane ga nakute ikemasen deshita
    I wanted to...

    Read more (688 words more)

    The structure of these sentences is :

    Subordinate clause + conjunction + Principal clause

    When the subordinate clause expresses a real, happened or verified fact

    ga / keredo(mo)

    Verbs/Adjectives: B3 + ga/keredo(mo)
    Nouns: N + da + ga/keredo(mo)

    The meaning of these conjunctions is simply "but" "however"

    行きたかったけれどもお金がなくて行けませんでした
    ikitakatta keredomo okane ga nakute ikemasen deshita
    I wanted to go, but i couldn't cause i hadn't money

    田中さんはよく仕事をするが彼の弟はしない
    tanaka-san wa yoku shigoto o suru ga kare no otouto wa shinai
    Tanaka works well, but his brother doesn't

    The conjuctive particle "ga" also has other functions:

    -it links predicates with the same subject with the meaning of "and also"

    彼は英語もできるがイタリア語もできる
    kare wa eigo mo dekiru ga itariago mo dekiru
    He knows english and also italian

    - simple conjunction (like "and")

    あした客が来るが、夕食はどうしようか
    ashita kyaku ga kuru ga, yuushoku wa doushouka
    Tomorrow guests will come, what should we have for dinner?

    noni

    Verbs/Adjectives: B4 or V-Ta + noni
    Nouns: N + na + noni

    The meaning of "noni" is "although" "despite" "even though"

    In this structure, the principal clause expresses an action contrary to what you would expect in reference to the subordinate clause.

    老人が困っているのにだれも助けてあげない
    roujin ga komatte iru noni daremo tasukete agenai
    Although the old man is in trouble, no one helps him

    英語の先生なのに英語が話せない
    eigo no sensei na noni eigo ga hanasenai
    Even if he is an english teacher, he can't speak english

    When you use "noni", subjective expression aren't usually possible in the principal clause.
    So sentences like these:
    ame ga futte iru noni, aruite ikinasai --> Even if it's raining, go by foot
    ame ga futte iru noni, aruite ikimashou --> Even if it's raining, let's go by foot
    ame ga futte iru noni, aruite kuru darou --> Even if it's raining, i think he'll come by foot
    ame ga futte iru noni, ureshii --> Even if it's raining, I'm happy

    must be written using "ga/keredomo":
    ame ga futte iru ga aruite ikinasai
    ame ga futte iru keredomo aruite ikimashou
    ame ga futte iru ga aruite kuru darou
    ame ga futte iru keredomo ureshii

    Other expression of "although", "despite"

    彼はもうすぐ出発するにもかかわらずうれしがっている
    kare wa mou sugu shuppatsu suru ni mo kakawarazu ureshigatte iru
    Although he is leaving soon, he is happy

    よく知らないくせに、あの人は何でも説明したい
    yoku shiranai kuse ni, ano hito wa nandemo setsumai shitai
    Although he doesn't know it well, he wants to explain everything

    彼はお金を持っていながら、つつましい生活をしている
    kare wa okane motte inagara, tsutsumashii seikatsu o shite iru
    Despite being rich, he is living an humble life

    彼は毎年中国に行くものの、中国語が話せない
    kare wa maitoshi chuugoku ni iku mono no, chuugokugo ga hanasenai
    Although he goes to China every year, he can't speak chinese

    When the subordinate clause expresses a possibility, an unreal or unverified fact

    temo

    Verbs/I-Adjectives: -te form + mo
    Nouns/Na-Adjectives: root + demo/deattemo

    Then meaning is "even if..."

    ヨーロッパはお金がなくても楽しめます
    yooroppa wa okane ga nakutemo tanoshimemasu
    You can enjoy Europe even if you don't have money

    あんなものは安くても買いません
    anna mono wa yasukutemo kaimasen
    Even if it was cheap, i wouldn't buy something like that

    たとえあなたがあゆまっても許してくれませんよ
    tatoe anata ga ayumattemo yurushite koremasen yo
    Even if you apologize, he won't forgive you

    temo vs noni

    彼は雪が降っても出かける
    kare wa yuki ga futtemo dekakeru
    Even if it snows, he will go out

    彼は雪が降っているのに出かける
    kare wa yuki ga futte iru noni dekakeru
    Although it's snowing, he will go out

    The difference between the 2 sentences is that in the first, "Even if it snows" is only an hypothesys, it's not actually snowing while talking. So this sentence can be used with the meaning of "Even if it will snow".
    This is also the reason why you use "v-te" and you can't use "V-ta", cause if you wanna say "Even if it snowed, he went out".. you already lived the situation, so "even if it snowed" is a "real, happened fact" and you use "noni" saying "yuki ga futta noni".
    In fact, in the second sentence, it's snowing for real.

    · close

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    • Let's Learn Japanese Together Lesson #40 - Reason Clause

      Posted on 20 September, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 188 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

      Ok, another kind of subordinate clause: reason clause.

      kara

      do you remember that "v-te kara" indicate a time clause right?
      well if the verb (or adjective) is present or past tense, kara ends a reason clause. (with nouns it's N + dakara)
      This kind of reason clause is used when the principal clause express a subjective opinion, volitive, imperative, request, prohibition, guess or a question.

      もう遅いから寝ましょうか
      mou osoi kara nemashou ka
      Since it...

      Read more (677 words more)

      Ok, another kind of subordinate clause: reason clause.

      kara

      do you remember that "v-te kara" indicate a time clause right?
      well if the verb (or adjective) is present or past tense, kara ends a reason clause. (with nouns it's N + dakara)
      This kind of reason clause is used when the principal clause express a subjective opinion, volitive, imperative, request, prohibition, guess or a question.

      もう遅いから寝ましょうか
      mou osoi kara nemashou ka
      Since it's late already, lets go to sleep?

      高速道路は混んでいるからやめたほうがいいですよ
      kousokudouro wa konde iru kara yameta houga ii desu yo
      Since the highway is congested, we better avoid it

      これをあげるから泣くのをやめなさい
      kore o ageru kara naku no o yamenasai
      Since i give this to you, stop crying

      node

      This kind of reason clause is instead more objective.
      The verb is again at present or past tense while with nouns is N+na+node.

      この本は役に立つのでよく売れています
      kono hon wa yakunitatsu node yoku urete imasu
      This book sell well cause it's useful

      ベネチアは海に囲まれているので湿気が多い
      benechia wa umi ni kakomarete iru no de shikke ga ooi
      Since Venice is surrounded by see, there is a lot of moisture

      ここは田舎なので野菜がおいしい
      koko wa inaka na node yashi ga oishii
      Since it's countryside here, vegetables are delicious

      When you have to make questions or excuses, "node" it's usually used instead of "kara" to make the sentence more objecive.

      飛行場に行くので失礼します
      hikoujou ni iku node shitsurei shimasu
      Excuse me but i have to go to the airport

      仕事をしなければならなかったので来れませんでした
      shigoto o shinakereba naranakatta node koremasen deshita
      I couldn't come cause i had to work

      よくわかりませんでしたのでもう一度説明してくださいませんか
      yoku wakarimasen deshita node mou ichido setsumei shite kudasaimasenka
      I didn't understand well, can you explain it one more time?

      kara vs node

      In addition to what i already said, "kara" is used instead of "node" when:

      - When the cosequence precedes the reason clause.

      太郎が泣いている。友達に頭をぶたれたからだ
      tarou ga naite iru. tomodachi ni atama o butareta kara da
      Tarou is crying. It's cause he has been hitted in the head by his friends.

      きのうはホテルに泊まった。主電車を逃したからだ
      kinou wa hoteru ni tomatta. shudensha o nogashita kara da
      I stopped in an hotel yesterday. It's cause i missed the last train.

      - When you have to use a time clause with "darou" or "noda" [we'll talk about noda in the future]

      彼は予定どうりに着くだろうから、早く駅へ行ったほうがいいですよ
      kare wa yotei douri ni tsuku darou kara, hayaku eki e itta houga ii desu yo
      Since it seems he'll arrive on time, I better go to the station early

      Te-Form

      Also the te-form may be used as reason clause (we talked about it already).
      This kind of reason clause is often used when the principal clause expresses feelings or emotional behaviour.
      It CAN'T be used with imperative, volitive, guess, prohibition and so on..

      金がなくて困っている
      kane ga nakute komatte iru
      I'm in trouble cause i don't have money.

      あの店は高くてびっくりしました
      ano mise wa takakute bikkuri shimashita
      I was surprised cause that shop is expensive

      学生たちは試合に勝って大騒ぎをしている
      gakuseitachi wa shiai ni katte daisawagi o shite iru
      Students are making great celebrations cause they won the match

      tame (ni)

      "tame (ni)" ends a reason clause that means "Because of.." "Due to.."

      今日は会議があるため、授業はありません
      kyou wa kaigi ga aru tame, jugyou wa arimasen
      Because of the assembly, There aren't lessons today.

      彼はゆうべ遅く寝たため、朝寝坊した
      kare wa yuube osoku neta tame, asa neboushita
      He wake up late this morning cause he went to sleep late last night

      sei de

      "sei de" is used in reason clauses that mean "Because of an incovenience.." "Due to an inconvenience.."

      客が遅れたせいでパーティが台無しになった
      kyaku ga osoreta sei de paati ga dainashi ni natta
      Because the guests were late, the party was ruined

      okage de

      "okage de" is used in reason clauses that mean "Because of a favorable event..." "Due to a favorable event..." "Thanks to.."

      父が送金してくれるおかげで、私は安心して勉強できます
      chichi ga soukin shite kureru okage de, watashi wa anshin shite benyou dekimasu
      Because of my father who send me money, I can study without concern.

      Conjunction between 2 indipendent sentences with the meaning of "so" "therefore" "hence"

      These conjunctions are:
      dakara
      desukara
      sokode
      sorede
      sonotame
      shitagatte

      頭がいたい。だから薬を飲んだ
      atama ga itai. dakara kusuri o nonda
      I have headache so I took a medicine.
      · close

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      • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #39 - Time Clauses (Part 2)

        Posted on 18 September, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 176 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

        ato (de) ---> 後(で)

        "ato" ends a time clause that means "After i did..."
        The verb in this time clause is at PAST tense (or nouns + no + ato (de)).

        テニスをした後、シャワーをあびた
        tenisu o shita ato, shawaa o abita
        After having played tennis, i took a shower

        江戸に幕府ができた後、江戸はよく発展した
        edo ni bakufu ga dekita ato, edo wa yoku hatten shita
        After the shogunate was estabilished in Edo,...

        Read more (769 words more)

        ato (de) ---> 後(で)

        "ato" ends a time clause that means "After i did..."
        The verb in this time clause is at PAST tense (or nouns + no + ato (de)).

        テニスをした後、シャワーをあびた
        tenisu o shita ato, shawaa o abita
        After having played tennis, i took a shower

        江戸に幕府ができた後、江戸はよく発展した
        edo ni bakufu ga dekita ato, edo wa yoku hatten shita
        After the shogunate was estabilished in Edo, the city developed well

        But this time clause, despite the past tense, can be used for future events too. Remember that the japanese past tense in dependent clause has no absolute temporal value, but it just tell that the action of the dependent clause happens before the action of the principal clause.

        あした、映画を見た後でレストランへ行こう
        ashita, eiga o mita ato de resutoran e ikou
        Tomorrow, after seeing a movie, we'll go to a restorant

        V-te kara

        if "kara" is used with V-te in a dependent clause it ends a clause that may have 2 meanings:

        -"After i did..." just as "ato (de)"

        映画を見てから、ホテルへ行きましょう
        eiga o mite kara, hoteru e ikimashou
        After seeing a movie, let's go in hotel

        宿題が終わってからテニスをした
        shukudai ga owatte kara tenisu o shita
        After having finished homework, i played tennis

        Remember that "kara" has temporal meaning only with V-te!

        - when the principal clause has a stative verb or a verb in continuous form (V-te iru), the meaning of the time clause is "Since when..."

        彼は大学に入ってからずっと東京に住んでいる
        kare wa daigaku ni haitte kara zutto toukyou ni sunde iru
        Since when he entered in university, he live in Tokyo

        父はごはんを食べてから、ずっと畑にいます
        chichi wa gohan o tabete kara, zutto hatake ni imasu
        After lunch, my father is always in the field

        aida (ni) ---> 間(に)

        "aida" ends a time clause that mean "While..." or "Until..."
        It is often used when the subject of the subordinate is different from the subject of the principal.
        If the verb is an action verb, it must be used in V-te iru form and obviously it can't be in past form (actions in subordinate and principal clause happen at the sime time).

        おじいさんが寝ている間、静かにしなければならない
        ojii-san ga nete iru aida, shizuka ni shinakereba naranai
        While the grandfather sleeps, we must be quiet

        涼しい間に、出かけよう
        suzushii aida ni, dekakeyou
        While it's cool, let's go out
        With principal clause with verbs in past tense, it can be used for past events.

        先生がいない間に、黒板にいたずら書きをした
        sensei ga inai aida ni, kokuban ni itazura kaki o shita
        While the teacher wasn't there, i doodled on the blackboard

        The difference between "aida" and "aida ni" is important. With "aida" you mean "all the time" while "aida ni" is used in all other cases.
        Let's look to this example:

        客が来ている間、子供たちはうるさかった
        kyaku ga kite iru aida, kodomotachi wa urusukatta
        While the guest was here, the kids were noisy.

        ---> During all the time of the action of the subordinate (guest being there), the action of the principal (kodomotachi being noisy) happened

        客が来ている間に、電話がかかってきた
        kyaku ga kite iru aida ni, denwa ga kakatte kita
        While the guest was here, a phone call arrived

        ---> the action of the principal (phone call arrived) happened while the action of the subordinate (guest being there) was happening, but it didn't last for all the time, it was just a moment.

        B4 + uchi ni

        If you remember, "V-nai + uchi ni" means "Before an inconvenient happens.."
        When the verb is affermative, "uchi ni" has the exact same meaning of "aida ni"
        With action verb, the verb must be in V-te form just as "aida ni"

        父がいるうちにそれを話しておこう
        chichi ga iru uchi ni sore o hanashite okou
        While dad is here, let's talk to him about that

        元気なうちにしたいことをしたほうがいい
        genkina uchi ni shitai koto o shita houga ii
        Until you are in good health, you better do what do you want

        made

        Pay attention to the difference between "made" and "made ni"
        As we already saw, "made ni" means "Before..." while "made" means "Until..."

        母が帰ってくるまでいてください
        haha ga kaette kuru made ite kudasai
        Stay here until mom returns please

        私は彼が本当のことを言うまで待った
        watashi wa kare ga hontou no koto iu made matta
        I waited until he said the truth

        tabi ni / goto ni

        They mean "Every time that..."

        雨がふるたびに買い物に行かされた
        ame ga furu tabi ni kaimono ni ikasareta
        Everytimes it was raining, she sent me to do the shopping

        日曜日ごとに動物園へいく
        nichiyoubi goto ni doubutsuen e iku
        He goes to the zoo every sunday

        Note that even if it may be considered theoretically possible (since the action of the subordinate can happen before the action of the principal), "V-ta tabi ni/goto ni" is NOT used. · close

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        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #38 - Time Clauses

          Posted on 9 September, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 268 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

          As promised, let's start talking about dependent clauses.
          Dependent clauses are just normal sentences that end with a particular word that help you to understand what kind of clause it is. Dependent clauses precede the principal clause.

          We'll start with time clauses.

          toki (ni) ---> 時(に)

          This is the base time clause "When......"
          Verb and adjectives are used in B4, nouns as "N no toki".

          新聞を読む時、めがねをかける
          shinbun o...

          Read more (819 words more)

          As promised, let's start talking about dependent clauses.
          Dependent clauses are just normal sentences that end with a particular word that help you to understand what kind of clause it is. Dependent clauses precede the principal clause.

          We'll start with time clauses.

          toki (ni) ---> 時(に)

          This is the base time clause "When......"
          Verb and adjectives are used in B4, nouns as "N no toki".

          新聞を読む時、めがねをかける
          shinbun o yomu toki, megane o kakeru
          When i read the newspaper, i put glasses on

          暑い時は、窓を開けましょう
          atsui toki wa, mado o akemashou
          When it's hot, let's open the windows

          真剣の時は、必ず早く起きる
          shinken no toki wa, kanarazu hayaku okiru
          when i have an exam, i always wake up early

          Time and politeness of the sentence is established by the verb of the principal clause. The verb in the time clause is in its base form and it hasn't temporal value. It simply means that the action in the time clause happens at the same time of the action in the principal clause.

          買い物に行く時、銀行に寄った
          kaimono ni iku toki, ginkou ni yotta
          When i went shopping, I dropped in the bank

          暇な時に、よくいっしょにつりに行った
          himana toki ni, yoku issho ni tsuri ni itta
          When we had free time, we often went to fish together

          The use of "toki" or "toki ni" is up to you, but the whole time clause can be the subject of the sentence.. in that case it will be ".... toki wa".

          It's possible, anyway, to have a past verb in the time clause with "toki".
          In this case it means that the action of the time clause happens BEFORE the action of the principal clause.
          Give a look to these examples:

          絵を書く時、彼は酒を飲みます
          e o kaku toki, kare wa sake o nomimasu
          When he paints, he drinks sake

          絵を書いた時、彼は酒を飲みます
          e o kaita toki, kare wa sake o nomimasu
          After he paints, he drinks sake

          The first sentence means that before painting or in the meanwhile, he drinks sake.
          The second sentence means that he paints first and THEN he drinks.

          Another example:

          日本へ行く時, 彼は薬をたくさん買った
          nihon e iku toki, kare wa kusuri o takusan katta
          When he went to Japan he bought many medicine

          日本へ行った時、彼は薬をたくさん買った
          nihon e itta toki, kare wa kusuri o takusan katta
          When he went to Japan he bought many medicine

          The 2 sentences can even be translated in the same way, but the meaning is different.
          With the first sentence you mean that he bought medicine before going to Japan.
          With the second, instead, the action "went to Japan" happens before "bought medicine".. so you mean that he bought medicine in Japan and not before the departure.

          to

          We already saw "to" used in "If clauses", but you can't make confusion.
          When the tense of the verb of the principal is at present, "to" ends an "if clause".
          When the tense of the verb of the principal is at past, "to" ends a time clause.

          "to" may be used to express:

          - 2 consecutive actions of the same person with the meaning of "As soon as.... , he..."

          彼は家に帰るとすぐふろに入った
          kare wa ie ni kaeru to sugu huro ni haitta
          As soon as he was back home, he took a bath

          - "When he did..., he noticed that.."

          よく見ると、その男は顔にきずあとがあった
          yoku miru to, sono otoko wa kao ni kizuato ga atta
          When i looked closely, I noticed that the man had a scar on the face

          ドアを開けると、社長がいた
          doa o akeru to, shachou ga ita
          When i opened the door, I realized he was the president

          mae (ni) ---> 前(に)

          "mae" ends time clauses that mean "Before.."
          The verb in this time clause can only be at PRESENT tense and AFFERMATIVE. And it can't be a stative verb.
          It can't be used with adjectives (only as "adjective ni naru/suru)
          While nouns are used as "N no mae (ni)"

          泳ぐ前に、体操をしなさい
          oyogu mae ni, taisou o shinasai
          Before swimming, do some exercise

          雨が降る前に、出かけたほうがいい
          ame ga furu mae ni, dekaketa hou ga ii
          Before it rains, it's better to leave

          寒くになる前に、ジャケットを買っておこう
          samuku ni naru mae ni, jaketto o katte okou
          Before it becomes cold, I'll buy a jacket

          The difference between "mae ni" and "mae" alone is that the first adresses to a specific moment while the second is more indefinite.

          Other ways to say "Before..."

          V-nai uchi ni

          It means "Before an inconvenience happens..."

          雨が降らないうちに、帰ったほうがいいですよ
          ame ga furanai uchi ni, kaetta houga ii desu yo
          Before it rain, It's better if you go back home

          叱られないうちに, 先生にあゆまろう
          shikararenai uchi ni, sensei ni ayumarou
          Before being scolded, let's apologize to the teacher

          Even if the verb of the time clause is negative, the meaning is affermative.

          made ni

          It means "Before...." and it put emphasis on the deadline.

          客たち来るまでに、掃除をしょう
          kyakutachi kuru made ni, souji o shou
          Before the guests come, let's clean

          橋が落ちるまでに、知らせなければならない
          hashi ga ochiru made ni, shirasenakereba naranai
          They must be informed before the bridge falls.

          In the next lesson the remanining time clauses ^^ · close

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          • Let's learn Japanese Together - Lesson #37 - Like/Dislike

            Posted on 6 September, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 428 views · 1 comments · 1 likes

            This will be a simple lesson ^^ And it will be the last one before we'll finally start talking about dependent clause.. yeah! Our sentences will become a bit more complicated ^^

            Sukina - Kiraina

            In japanese, you can use these 2 Na-adjectives to tell what you like and what you dislike. They can also be used to express "love" and "hate".

            Since they are Na-adjectives, you should not have problem using them ^^

            X wa N ga suki da/desu ---> X likes...

            Read more (346 words more)

            This will be a simple lesson ^^ And it will be the last one before we'll finally start talking about dependent clause.. yeah! Our sentences will become a bit more complicated ^^

            Sukina - Kiraina

            In japanese, you can use these 2 Na-adjectives to tell what you like and what you dislike. They can also be used to express "love" and "hate".

            Since they are Na-adjectives, you should not have problem using them ^^

            X wa N ga suki da/desu ---> X likes N
            X wa N ga kirai da/desu ---> X dislikes N

            私は魚が好きだ
            watashi wa sakana ga suki da
            I like fish

            彼女はフットサルが嫌いです
            kanojo wa futtosaru ga kirai desu
            She dislike football

            When in a sentence you say "X likes A but doesn't like B", the particle "wa" substitute the particle "ga"

            母はコーヒーは好きですが紅茶はではありません
            haha wa koohii wa suki desu ga koucha wa suki dewa arimasen
            My mother likes coffe but she doesn't like tea

            Note that "ga" here is not a particle but an adversative conjunction.

            Like any other adjective, sukina and kiraina can be used in attributive form.

            彼が好きな歌はこれです
            kare ga sukina uta wa kore desu
            The song he likes is this

            あなたが嫌いな飲み物はどれですか
            anata ga kiraina nomimono wa dore desuka
            Which is the drink you don't like?

            When you want to say "I like/dislike to do something", you have to nominalize the verb using "koto" o "no"

            私はピアノをひくことが好きです
            watashi wa piano o hiku koto ga suki desu
            I like to play the piano

            彼女は歌うのはすきだが踊るのは嫌いだ
            kanojo wa utau no wa suki da ga odoru no wa kirai da
            She likes to sing but she dislike to dance

            When you want to say that you like/dislike something more than something else you have to use the comparative structure

            彼女は踊ることより歌うことのほうがすきだ
            kanojo wa odoru koto yori utau koto no hou ga suki da
            She likes to sing more than dancing

            Remember that sukina and kiraida express a long lasting feeling and NOT momentary.
            So if, at the end of a movie, you want to ask "Did you like the movie?" you can't say "eiga ga suki deshitaka"
            cause this sentence mean "have you liked the movie time ago? (cause now you don't like it anymore)"

            You can say:
            eiga wa yokatta desuka
            eiga wa omoshirokatta desuka
            eiga ga ki ni irimashitaka [the structure is "X wa N ga ki ni iru] · close

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            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #36 - Give and Recieve

              Posted on 31 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 94 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

              Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

              To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

              ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

              UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
              SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar pe...

              Read more (1019 words more)

              Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

              To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

              ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

              UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
              SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar person and people considered socially superior

              Depending on the direction of the "give" and "recieve" you'll have to use different verbs

              To give

              In japanese there are 3 verbs that mean "to give": AGERU - KURERU - YARU

              Ageru

              This verb is used when the direction of "give" is toward right:

              ME gives to Uchi and Soto
              Uchi gives to Uchi and Soto
              Soto gives to Soto

              The structure is simple:

              X wa Y ni N o ageru

              X is the person who gives
              Y is the person who recieves
              N is the thing given

              So the meaning is simply: "X gives N to Y"

              私は父にネクタイをあげよう
              watashi wa chichi ni nekutai o ageyou
              I'll give a necktie to my father

              父は隣の人に松をあげた
              chichi wa tonari no hito ni matsu o ageta
              My father gave a pine to the neighbour

              田中さんは山田さんに切手をあげた
              tanaka-san wa yamada-san ni kitte o ageta
              Tanaka gave a stamp to Yamada

              "ageru" has a humble form "sashiageru". This is part of the so called "keigo" that is the japanese honorific way of talking. When you talk with a person that is considered superior, you have to use keigo to show him respect.
              "sashiageru" is used when the person who recieve is superior to the person who gives.

              弟は先生に絵をさしあげました
              otouto wa sensei ni e o sashiagemashita
              My younger brother gave a draw to the teacher

              Kureru

              Kureru is used when the direction of giving goes toward left:

              Soto gives to Uchi or Me
              Uchi gives to Me

              As you may notice, when the 2 persons are part of the same group "ageru" is used.

              The structure is the same:

              X wa Y ni N o kureru

              小島さん妹に劇の切符をくれた
              kojima-san imouto ni geki no kippu o kureta
              Mr.Kojima gave a ticket for the theater to my younger sister

              妹はその切符を私にくれた
              imouto wa sono kippu o watashi ni kureta
              My younger sister gave that ticket to me

              Also "kureru" has its humble form "kudasaru".
              Pay attention: "kudasaru" is used when the person who GIVES is superior to the the person who recieve.

              先生は子供におもちゃをくださった
              sensei wa kodomo ni omocha kudasatta
              The teacher gave a toy to my son

              Yaru

              Yaru is used only when:

              -the person who recieves is clearly inferior
              -the person who recieves is an animal
              -among male friends

              妹にスカートをやる
              imouto ni sukaato o yaru
              I'll give a skirt to my younger sister

              This is just a little different from "imouto ni sukaato o ageru". It implies that "the younger sister" is "inferior".

              お母さん、ねこにごはんをやってね
              okaasan, neko ni gohan o yatte ne
              Mom, feed the cat ok? (lit. give the food to the cat)

              僕は井上にあの本をやった
              boku wa inoue ni ano hon o yatta
              I gave that book to Inoue

              To recieve

              There is only one verb that means "to recieve": "morau"

              Morau

              The direction of recieving goes toward left:

              Me recieves from Uchi or Soto
              Uchi recieves from Uchi or Soto
              Soto recieves from Soto

              If Soto or Uchi recieve something from Me, you can't use "morau" but you have to invert the sentence and use ageru.

              The structure is:

              Y wa N ni/kara N o morau

              Y is the person who recieve
              X is the person who gives
              N is the things recieved

              The meaning is simply: "Y recieve N from X"

              Obviously, it's just the opposite of ageru/kureru/yaru

              弟は父からおもちゃをもらった
              otouto wa chichi kara omocha o moratta
              My younger brother recieved a toy from dad

              まりこさんはみずきさんに本をもらったそうだ
              mariko-san wa mizuki-san ni hon o moratta souda
              It seems that Mariko recieved a book from Mizuki

              If "X" is an organization like a "company" or "school", you can use only "kara" and not "ni"

              会社から野球の切符をもらった
              kaisha kara yakyuu no kippu o moratta
              I recieved a ticket for baseball from the company

              Also "morau" has a humble form "itadaku".
              It's used when who recieves is inferior.

              部長から写真をいただきました
              buchou kara shashin o itadakimashita
              I recieved a photo from the boss

              V-te Ageru/Kureru/Yaru/Morau

              The same system of giving and recieving is used when someone do something from someone else and viceversa.
              In fact, ageru, kureru, yaru and morau haven't only the material meaning of £give" and "recieve" and when they are used with "V-te" they mean "to do something for someone"

              "Y" used in the previous examples is the person who takes advantage from the action done by "X"

              母は着物をもってくれました
              haha wa kimono o motte kuremashita
              My mother made a kimono for me

              その仕事を手伝ってあげましょうか
              sono shigoto o tetsudatte agemashou ka
              Do you want that i help you with that work?

              when X and Y are "watashi" and "anata" they are often omitted cause it's clear from the context.

              店員はプレゼントをきれいに包んでくれた
              ten'in wa purezento o kirei ni tsutsunde kureta
              The clerk wrapped the present in a nice way (for me)

              ねこの背中を撫でてやりました
              neko no senaka o nadete yarimashita
              I patted on the cat's back

              きのう先生から彼に離したいただいた
              kinou sensei kara kare ni hanashite itadaita
              Yesterday, the teacher talked to him (for me)

              The last sentence shows how it's not that easy to use this kind of sentences.
              In english the subject is "teacher" cause "teacher" is the one who "talk to him".
              But using "V-te morau" you want to point out that the teacher is doing you a favour or you would have simply said "sensei wa kare ni hanashimashita".
              While with the sentence you are saying:
              sensei kara [..] itadaita ---> I received (a favour) from the teacher
              which favour?
              kare ni hanashite --> to talk to him · close

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              • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #35 - If clauses (part 2)

                Posted on 26 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 107 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
                We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

                V-tara

                V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
                With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
                With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

                V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followe...

                Read more (1033 words more)

                So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
                We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

                V-tara

                V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
                With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
                With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

                V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followed by an apodosis expressing an opinion, advice, request, volitive or a guess.
                But it hasn't the same meaning of "nara".
                In fact, V-tara has the meaning of "when..." and not only "if..". Obviously, the clause with "when" express a condition that has to happen before the action in the principal clause.

                大阪に着いたら手紙を書いてください
                oosaka ni tsuitara tegami o kaite kudasai
                When you arrive in Osaka, write me a letter please

                車が治ったら山に行こう
                kuruma ga naottara yama ni ikou
                when (if) the car will be repaired, we'll go to the mountain

                It also have the meaning of "If, by chance, it happens that.."

                彼に見られたら恥ずかしい
                kare ni miraretara hazukashii
                It's emberrassing to be seen with him (If it happens that i'm seen with him, it's embarrassing)

                時間があったら映画を見に行こう
                jikan ga attara eiga o mi ni ikou
                If there is time, let's go to see a movie

                寒かったら大変だ
                samukattara taihen da
                If it's cold, it's troublesome

                私だったらそんなこはしない
                watashi dattara sonna koto wa shinai
                If it was me, i wouldn't do it

                Differences between V-ba, nara and V-tara

                Before talking about "to" that has it's particular use.. let's see the differences between these 3 ways to express a conditional period since they are similar.

                Temporal relation between protasis (P) and apodosis (A)

                Let's see this 3 sentences:

                ---------P----------------------------------A----------
                1)nihon e ikeba--------------sushi ga taberareru
                2)nihon e iku nara-----------sushi ga taberareru
                3)nihon e ittara--------------sushi ga taberareru

                Only V-tara tell that (P) happens before (A), so sentence 3 is "When you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi" "Once you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi"
                In sentence 1 and 2 (P) may happens both before or after (A).. so the translation is more hypothetical "If you go to Japan, you can eat sushi"
                The only difference is that with V-ba, (P) usually happens before (A), while with "nara" it may be both.
                Let's see other 3 examples to explain it:

                -----------P----------------------------------A---------
                1)nihon e ikeba-------------nihongo ga benkyou dekiru
                2)nihon e iku nara----------nihongo o oshiete ageyou
                3)nihon e ittara-------------nihongo o oshiete morainasai

                Again, in sentence 3 (P) happens before (A) "Since you have been in Japan, teach me japanese"
                In sentence 1, (P) happens before (A) "If you go to Japan, you can study Japanese" (there, in Japan)
                In sentence 2, (P) may happens both before or after (A) "If/When you go to Japan, teach me japanese". The sentence is good both if you ask to be teached japanese before he goes to Japan or once he is in Japan.
                Anyway, talking about temporal relation, you can consider V-ba and "nara" as almost the same thing.

                General condition vs Specific condition

                V-ba is used for general condition that has a consequence that usually happens. "If you... it always happens that.."
                While nara and V-tara are used for specific condition, single events. "When you... it happened that..."

                suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuku --> If you switch on, the radio turns on (normal event, it always happens)
                suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuita --> Every time i switched on, the radio turned on
                suicchi o hinettara rajio ga tsuita --> When i switched on, the radio turned on (you are describing the single event)

                Restriction depending of the kind of sentence in the apodosis

                V-ba is the one that expresses objectivity the most, so is usually not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a request, volitive, exhortative, imperative, a guess or prohibition.
                In that case use nara or V-tara.

                to

                "to" is used for natural events that happen regularly, habits, math and scientific rules, so the apodosis always expresses a natural and logic consequence.

                春になると花が咲きます
                haru ni naru to hana ga sakimasu
                When spring comes, flowers bloom

                3に2を足すと5になる
                3 ni 2 o tasu to 5 ni naru
                If you add 2 to 3, it becomes 5 (or simply 3+2=5 :D)

                雨が降るとここはよく洪水になる
                ame ga furu to koko wa yoku kouzui ni naru
                When it rains, this place is often flooded

                私が行くといつも彼女はケーキを作れる
                watashi ga iku to itsumo kanojo wa keeki o tsukureru
                When i go, she always make me a cake

                Just as V-ba, "to" is not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a guess, request, volitive etc...

                haru ni naru to hana o uemasu --> when spring comes flowers are planted
                haru ni naru uemashou---> is WRONG!

                To say "when spring comes, let's plant flowers", you have to use nara or V-tara. In this case V-tara is probably better.
                haru ni nattara uemashou --> When spring will arrive, let's plant flowers

                Real hypothesis

                When the condition is no more than a simple hypothesis, V-ba, nara, V-tara and to are used with hypothetical adverbs "moshi" or "mangaichi". In this case they must always be translated with "If.."

                もし彼が家にいれば会えます
                moshi kare ga ie ni ireba aemasu
                If he is at home, you can meet him

                万が一彼が来なかったらどうしよう
                mangaichi kare ga konakattara doushiyou
                If by chance he doesn't come, what would i do?

                もしインドにも行くならおみやげを買ってきてください
                moshi indo ni mo iku nara omiyage o katte kite kudasai
                If you go in India too, buy me a present please

                万が一ガラスが割れるとけがをしますよ
                mangaichi garasu ga wareru to kega o shimasu yo
                If the glass breaks, you'll get injured
                Unrealizable hypothesis

                This is an hypothesis on an event that can't be realized, so the action in the apodosis won't happen. The apodosis often ends with "noni"

                もっと安ければあのドレスを買うのに
                motto yasukereba ano doresu o kau noni
                If it was cheaper, I would buy that dress

                But the hypothesis is not true, cause actually that dress is not cheaper, so you won't buy it

                皆がよく働いたらもっと早く終わっただろうのに
                mina ga yoku hataraitara motto hayaku owatta darou noni
                If everyone had worked better, we would have probably finished earlier

                あしたでないならその会に行けるのに
                ashita de nai nara sono kai ni ikeru noni
                If it wasn't tomorrow, i could go to the meeting · close

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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #34 - If clauses

                  Posted on 23 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 171 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                  The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
                  Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

                  CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
                  If .......... + then.....

                  B5 + ba

                  This represents the conditional forms...

                  Read more (741 words more)

                  The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
                  Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

                  CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
                  If .......... + then.....

                  B5 + ba

                  This represents the conditional forms of verbs and adjectives. I will simply call it V-ba from now on.
                  The verbs in V-Ba is used in the protasis.

                  If the V-ba verb is an "action verb", you can't use volitive, exhortative, imperative, request, prohibition or advice in the apodosis.

                  この薬を飲めば、治りますよ
                  kono kusuri o nomeba naorimasu yo
                  If you take this medicine, you'll get well

                  この大学を出れば、いい会社に入れる
                  kono daigaku o dereba ii kaisha ni haireru
                  If i graduate from this university, I'll enter in a good company

                  With stative verbs or adjective there are no restriction for the verb of the apodosis

                  高くなければ会なさい
                  takakunakereba kai nasai
                  If it's not expensive, buy it

                  日本へ行きたければ日本語を習ったほうがいいですよ
                  nihon e ikitakereba nihongo o natta houga ii desu yo
                  If you want to go to Japan, you better learn japanese

                  B5+ba is the only form of V-ba, but even if V-ba hasn't a past form.. it can describe a past event if the verb of the apodosis is in past tense.
                  In this case it describe an HABITUAL action and NOT a single action (to describe a single action in a past conditional period you have to use "tara".. one of the other conditional forms)

                  あの人に頼めば必ず教えてくれた
                  ano hito ni tanomeba kanarazu oshiete kureta
                  If i asked that man, he always answered

                  Compare it with this sentence with "tara":

                  あの人に頼んだらすぐ教えてくれた
                  ano hito ni tanondara sugu oshiete kureta
                  WHEN i asked him, he immediately answered

                  Nara

                  Verbs (B4) + nara
                  I-Adjectives (B4) + nara
                  Na-Adjectives (root) + nara
                  Nouns + nara

                  When "nara" is used with a verb at present tense, it expresses a contitional clause on present or future event. This kind of protasis is usually followed by an apodosis that expresses a judgement, a guess, volitive or the opinion of the talker. It's rarely used with objective apodosis. You can consider "nara" complementary to V-ba in this case. When you can't use V-ba, you can use "nara".
                  The subject of the protasis is usually at 2nd or 3rd person.

                  あすいい天気なら行こう
                  asu ii tenki nara ikou
                  if tomorrow the weather is good, i'll go

                  いい天気ではないなら行くまい
                  ii tenki dewanai nara ikumai
                  If the weather is not good, i won't go

                  あなたが歌うなら私も歌います
                  anata ga utau nara watashi mo utaimasu
                  If you sing, I'll sing too

                  日本へ行くなら日本語を勉強しておきなさい
                  nihon e iku nara nihongo o benkyou shite okinasai
                  If you go to Japan, study japanese
                  Since you go to Japan, study japanese (first)

                  ケーキを作るなら私にも一切れください
                  keeki o tsukuru nara watashi ni mo ichi kire kudasai
                  If (Since) you make a cake, give a piece to me too

                  Used with verbs in past tense, it expresses a conditional clause on a past event that it's surely already happened. So it means "Since...., then.."

                  ローマへ行ったならバチカンへも行ったでしょう
                  rooma e itta nara bachikan e mo itta deshou
                  Since you have been in Rome, you probably visited Vatican too

                  彼に会ったならそのことを知っている
                  kare ni atta nara sono koto o shitte iru
                  Since you met him, you should know that thing

                  "nara" can be used in conditional period with apodosis that expresses an advice/opinion.
                  In this case the sentence is translated "If you want to.. then (i advice you to)..."

                  テレビを買うならあの店が安いですよ
                  terebi o kau nara ano mise ga yasui desu yo
                  If you want to buy a TV, that store has low prices (--> so i advice you to go there)

                  アメリカへ行くならぜひ ニューヨークへ行きなさい
                  amerika e iku nara zehi nyuuyouku e ikinasai
                  If you go to USA, you absolutely have to go to New York

                  As we saw before, nara doesn't express only hypothesis but also verified/already happened events. So it doesn't only mean "if.." but also "Since..".
                  Japanese has other expressions that can be used instead of "nara" when it means "Since.."

                  They are: to suruto, to shitara, to sureba, to naruto.

                  They are used at the end of the protasis with verbs in B3, and they are followed by the principal clauses

                  彼は来ないとすると奥さんも来ないだろう
                  kare wa konai to suruto okusan mo konai darou
                  Since he doesn't come, his wife won't probably come too

                  きのう彼は酒を飲みすぎたとなると今日頭がいたい
                  kinou kare wa sake o nomi sugita to naruto kyou atama ga itai
                  Since he drank too much yesterday, today he has headache

                  Next lesson: the other 2 conditional forms: "tara" and "to" · close

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                  • Let's Jap Together - Les. #33 - Guess/Uncert. - souda / kamo shirenai / hazu da

                    Posted on 21 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 147 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                    After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

                    souda / soudesu

                    Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
                    Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

                    With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
                    But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
                    It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
                    Let's look at this example:

                    kono ringo wa oishi souda-...

                    Read more (778 words more)

                    After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

                    souda / soudesu

                    Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
                    Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

                    With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
                    But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
                    It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
                    Let's look at this example:

                    kono ringo wa oishi souda---> this apple looks delicious
                    kono ringo wa ama souda---> this apple looks sweet
                    kono ringo wa mazu souda---> this apple looks bad tasting
                    kono ringo wa furu souda---> this apple looks old

                    This sentence are all correct and they are made looking at the apple. The look of the apple makes the talker think that the apple may be "delicious" "sweet" "bad tasting" "old"

                    You can't use souda with adjectives like "akai" (red) "ookii" (big) "marui" (rounded).. cause you are looking at the apple, so you can tell if it's red, big or rounded... you are not guessing.

                    If it happens that you are far from the apple and you have to say "That apples seems red", you have to use youda or rashii --> "ano ringo wa akai youda"/"ano ringo wa akai rashii"

                    Souda can also be used to make a guess on a future events that it seems they are going to happen soon. Also this guess is based on ocular observation.

                    今にも雨が降りそうだ
                    ima ni mo ame ga furi souda
                    It looks like it's gonna rain soon

                    このバスは止まりそうです
                    kno basu wa tomari soudesu
                    It seems that this bus is going to stop

                    With potential verbs souda means "it looks like he can..." "it seems he can.."

                    この車はまだ使えそうだ
                    kono kuruma wa mada tsukae souda
                    It looks like this car can still be used

                    あの会社には入れそうではない
                    ano kaisha ni wa haire soudewanai
                    It seems i can't enter in that company

                    Souda can be used in an attributive form and an adverbial form.
                    The attributive form is "souna" while the adverbial is "souni"

                    彼は高そうな車を買った
                    kare wa taka souna kuruma o katta
                    he bought a car that looks expensive

                    彼はうれしそうに話した
                    kare wa ureshi souni hanashita
                    he spoke happily (he spoke in a way that looked happy)

                    Now compre these sentences:

                    ima ni mo ame ga furi souda --> It looks like is going to rain soon
                    ame ga futte iru youda --> It seems it's raining (told by someone in direct contact with the rain)
                    nihon de wa rokugatsu ni ame ga yoku furu youda (rashii) --> it seems that (i heard that) in japan it rains a lot on June
                    tabun ashita ame ga furu darou --> It will probably rain tomorrow (subjective guess)

                    kamo shirenai / kamo shiremasen

                    Verbs: B4 + kamo shirenai
                    I-Adjectives: B4 + kamo shirenai
                    Na-Adjectives: Root + kamo shirenai
                    Nouns: N + kamo shirenai

                    With kamo shirenai you make a guess that is the most unsure among all the way we have seen. Who talks is not sure at all of what he is saying.

                    私はいくかもしれないし行かないかもしれない
                    watashi wa iku kamo shirenai shi ikanai kamo shirenai
                    Maybe i'll go, maybe i won't go

                    彼は音楽家かもしれない
                    kare wa ongaguka kamo shirenai
                    He may be a musician (but i'm not sure)

                    Compare these sentences:

                    kare wa kunai kamo shirenai --> Perhaps he won't come (i'm not sure)
                    kare wa kunai darou --> He'll probably won't come
                    kare wa kunai rashii --> I heard he won't come
                    kare wa kunai youda --> It seems he won't come

                    hazu da/desu

                    Verbs: B4 + hazu da
                    Adjectives: B4 + hazu da
                    Nouns: N no hazu da

                    This form means "It's supposed to.."
                    In fact this is not normal guess, we are talking about something that we expect to happen or it should have already happened.

                    彼は三時に駅に着くはずだ
                    kare wa sanji ni eki ni tsuku hazu da
                    He is supposed to arrive at the station at 3 o'clock

                    授業はもう終わったはずだ
                    jugyou wa mou owatta hazu da
                    The lesson should have already finished

                    The negative form of "hazu da" is "hazu ga (wa) nai"and it means "It's not possible that.."

                    彼がそんなことを言うはずがない
                    kare wa sonna koto o iu hazu ga nai
                    It's not possible that he says something like that

                    -ni chigai nai / -ni kimatte iru

                    Even if this forms are still a guess, the talker is really sure of what he is saying. It means "No doubt that.." "It must..." "Surely..."

                    彼が選ばれるにちがいない
                    kare ga erabareru ni chigai nai
                    No doubt that he will be elected

                    そんなことをしたら先に叱られるにきまっている
                    sonna koto o shitara sensei ni shikarareru ni kimatte iru
                    If you do something like that, you'll surely be scolded by the teacher · close

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                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #32 - Guess/Uncertainty - rashii /youda

                      Posted on 17 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 174 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                      Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

                      rashii

                      rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
                      So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
                      To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
                      Just as darou/deshou, you have to ad...

                      Read more (304 words more)

                      Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

                      rashii

                      rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
                      So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
                      To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
                      Just as darou/deshou, you have to add it at the end of the sentence to transform an affermative sentence into a guess.

                      Verbs: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
                      I-Adjectives: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
                      Na-Adjectives: root + rashii/rashii desu
                      Nouns: N+ rashii/rashii desu

                      The negative guess can be made by both conjugating the verb of the sentence or conjugating rashii (rashikunai).


                      あに人は山中さんらしい
                      ano hito wa yamanaka-san rashii
                      That man seems Yamanaka-san

                      どろぼうもう出て行ったらしく、物音が止めた
                      dorobou wa mou dete itta rashiku, monooto ga yameta
                      It looks like the robber is already gone, the noises stopped

                      あした鉄道はストで止まるらしいです
                      ashita tetsudou wa suto de tomaru rashii desu
                      I heard that the trains will stop tomorrow due to strike

                      あの人は病気らしい
                      ano hito wa byouki rashii
                      As far as i know, that man is sick

                      彼はみずきと結婚しないらしい
                      kare wa mizuki to kekkon shinai rashii
                      I heard that he won't marry Mizuki

                      youda/youdesu

                      Verbs: B4 + youda/youdesu
                      I-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
                      Na-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
                      Nouns: N no youda/youdesu

                      youda is used, just like rashii, to make a guessing with some foundation due to observation but it also add a psychological participation.
                      He can be translated as "It seems.." "As far as i know.."

                      父はもう帰ってきたようだ
                      chichi wa mou kaette kita youda
                      It seems my father is already returned

                      雨が降っているようだった
                      ame ga futte iru youdatta
                      It seemed it was raining

                      彼はダンススクールに通っているようだ
                      kare wa dansu sukuuru ni kayotte iru youda
                      As far as i know, he is attending a dance school

                      火はもう消えたようです
                      hi wa mou kieta youdesu
                      It seems that the fire is already extinguished

                      youda is also used to express subjective impressions and for guessing on your own behaviour

                      その話は以前どこかで聞いたようだ
                      sono hanashi wa izen dokoka de kiita youda
                      I think i already heard this story somewhere [以前-->izen-->previously]

                      私はま違っていたようだ
                      watashi wa machigatte ita youda
                      It seems i was wrong · close

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