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DottDivine

THX JPA ^_^
dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 6 years ago. He owns like 1,543 Jpops and was last seen here about 3 hours ago

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Journals

  • Let's learn Japanese Together - Lesson #37 - Like/Dislike

    Posted on 6 September, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 422 views · 1 comments · 1 likes

    This will be a simple lesson ^^ And it will be the last one before we'll finally start talking about dependent clause.. yeah! Our sentences will become a bit more complicated ^^

    Sukina - Kiraina

    In japanese, you can use these 2 Na-adjectives to tell what you like and what you dislike. They can also be used to express "love" and "hate".

    Since they are Na-adjectives, you should not have problem using them ^^

    X wa N ga suki da/desu ---> X likes...

    Read more (346 words more)

    This will be a simple lesson ^^ And it will be the last one before we'll finally start talking about dependent clause.. yeah! Our sentences will become a bit more complicated ^^

    Sukina - Kiraina

    In japanese, you can use these 2 Na-adjectives to tell what you like and what you dislike. They can also be used to express "love" and "hate".

    Since they are Na-adjectives, you should not have problem using them ^^

    X wa N ga suki da/desu ---> X likes N
    X wa N ga kirai da/desu ---> X dislikes N

    私は魚が好きだ
    watashi wa sakana ga suki da
    I like fish

    彼女はフットサルが嫌いです
    kanojo wa futtosaru ga kirai desu
    She dislike football

    When in a sentence you say "X likes A but doesn't like B", the particle "wa" substitute the particle "ga"

    母はコーヒーは好きですが紅茶はではありません
    haha wa koohii wa suki desu ga koucha wa suki dewa arimasen
    My mother likes coffe but she doesn't like tea

    Note that "ga" here is not a particle but an adversative conjunction.

    Like any other adjective, sukina and kiraina can be used in attributive form.

    彼が好きな歌はこれです
    kare ga sukina uta wa kore desu
    The song he likes is this

    あなたが嫌いな飲み物はどれですか
    anata ga kiraina nomimono wa dore desuka
    Which is the drink you don't like?

    When you want to say "I like/dislike to do something", you have to nominalize the verb using "koto" o "no"

    私はピアノをひくことが好きです
    watashi wa piano o hiku koto ga suki desu
    I like to play the piano

    彼女は歌うのはすきだが踊るのは嫌いだ
    kanojo wa utau no wa suki da ga odoru no wa kirai da
    She likes to sing but she dislike to dance

    When you want to say that you like/dislike something more than something else you have to use the comparative structure

    彼女は踊ることより歌うことのほうがすきだ
    kanojo wa odoru koto yori utau koto no hou ga suki da
    She likes to sing more than dancing

    Remember that sukina and kiraida express a long lasting feeling and NOT momentary.
    So if, at the end of a movie, you want to ask "Did you like the movie?" you can't say "eiga ga suki deshitaka"
    cause this sentence mean "have you liked the movie time ago? (cause now you don't like it anymore)"

    You can say:
    eiga wa yokatta desuka
    eiga wa omoshirokatta desuka
    eiga ga ki ni irimashitaka [the structure is "X wa N ga ki ni iru] · close

      Comment
    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #36 - Give and Recieve

      Posted on 31 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 93 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

      Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

      To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

      ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

      UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
      SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar pe...

      Read more (1019 words more)

      Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

      To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

      ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

      UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
      SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar person and people considered socially superior

      Depending on the direction of the "give" and "recieve" you'll have to use different verbs

      To give

      In japanese there are 3 verbs that mean "to give": AGERU - KURERU - YARU

      Ageru

      This verb is used when the direction of "give" is toward right:

      ME gives to Uchi and Soto
      Uchi gives to Uchi and Soto
      Soto gives to Soto

      The structure is simple:

      X wa Y ni N o ageru

      X is the person who gives
      Y is the person who recieves
      N is the thing given

      So the meaning is simply: "X gives N to Y"

      私は父にネクタイをあげよう
      watashi wa chichi ni nekutai o ageyou
      I'll give a necktie to my father

      父は隣の人に松をあげた
      chichi wa tonari no hito ni matsu o ageta
      My father gave a pine to the neighbour

      田中さんは山田さんに切手をあげた
      tanaka-san wa yamada-san ni kitte o ageta
      Tanaka gave a stamp to Yamada

      "ageru" has a humble form "sashiageru". This is part of the so called "keigo" that is the japanese honorific way of talking. When you talk with a person that is considered superior, you have to use keigo to show him respect.
      "sashiageru" is used when the person who recieve is superior to the person who gives.

      弟は先生に絵をさしあげました
      otouto wa sensei ni e o sashiagemashita
      My younger brother gave a draw to the teacher

      Kureru

      Kureru is used when the direction of giving goes toward left:

      Soto gives to Uchi or Me
      Uchi gives to Me

      As you may notice, when the 2 persons are part of the same group "ageru" is used.

      The structure is the same:

      X wa Y ni N o kureru

      小島さん妹に劇の切符をくれた
      kojima-san imouto ni geki no kippu o kureta
      Mr.Kojima gave a ticket for the theater to my younger sister

      妹はその切符を私にくれた
      imouto wa sono kippu o watashi ni kureta
      My younger sister gave that ticket to me

      Also "kureru" has its humble form "kudasaru".
      Pay attention: "kudasaru" is used when the person who GIVES is superior to the the person who recieve.

      先生は子供におもちゃをくださった
      sensei wa kodomo ni omocha kudasatta
      The teacher gave a toy to my son

      Yaru

      Yaru is used only when:

      -the person who recieves is clearly inferior
      -the person who recieves is an animal
      -among male friends

      妹にスカートをやる
      imouto ni sukaato o yaru
      I'll give a skirt to my younger sister

      This is just a little different from "imouto ni sukaato o ageru". It implies that "the younger sister" is "inferior".

      お母さん、ねこにごはんをやってね
      okaasan, neko ni gohan o yatte ne
      Mom, feed the cat ok? (lit. give the food to the cat)

      僕は井上にあの本をやった
      boku wa inoue ni ano hon o yatta
      I gave that book to Inoue

      To recieve

      There is only one verb that means "to recieve": "morau"

      Morau

      The direction of recieving goes toward left:

      Me recieves from Uchi or Soto
      Uchi recieves from Uchi or Soto
      Soto recieves from Soto

      If Soto or Uchi recieve something from Me, you can't use "morau" but you have to invert the sentence and use ageru.

      The structure is:

      Y wa N ni/kara N o morau

      Y is the person who recieve
      X is the person who gives
      N is the things recieved

      The meaning is simply: "Y recieve N from X"

      Obviously, it's just the opposite of ageru/kureru/yaru

      弟は父からおもちゃをもらった
      otouto wa chichi kara omocha o moratta
      My younger brother recieved a toy from dad

      まりこさんはみずきさんに本をもらったそうだ
      mariko-san wa mizuki-san ni hon o moratta souda
      It seems that Mariko recieved a book from Mizuki

      If "X" is an organization like a "company" or "school", you can use only "kara" and not "ni"

      会社から野球の切符をもらった
      kaisha kara yakyuu no kippu o moratta
      I recieved a ticket for baseball from the company

      Also "morau" has a humble form "itadaku".
      It's used when who recieves is inferior.

      部長から写真をいただきました
      buchou kara shashin o itadakimashita
      I recieved a photo from the boss

      V-te Ageru/Kureru/Yaru/Morau

      The same system of giving and recieving is used when someone do something from someone else and viceversa.
      In fact, ageru, kureru, yaru and morau haven't only the material meaning of £give" and "recieve" and when they are used with "V-te" they mean "to do something for someone"

      "Y" used in the previous examples is the person who takes advantage from the action done by "X"

      母は着物をもってくれました
      haha wa kimono o motte kuremashita
      My mother made a kimono for me

      その仕事を手伝ってあげましょうか
      sono shigoto o tetsudatte agemashou ka
      Do you want that i help you with that work?

      when X and Y are "watashi" and "anata" they are often omitted cause it's clear from the context.

      店員はプレゼントをきれいに包んでくれた
      ten'in wa purezento o kirei ni tsutsunde kureta
      The clerk wrapped the present in a nice way (for me)

      ねこの背中を撫でてやりました
      neko no senaka o nadete yarimashita
      I patted on the cat's back

      きのう先生から彼に離したいただいた
      kinou sensei kara kare ni hanashite itadaita
      Yesterday, the teacher talked to him (for me)

      The last sentence shows how it's not that easy to use this kind of sentences.
      In english the subject is "teacher" cause "teacher" is the one who "talk to him".
      But using "V-te morau" you want to point out that the teacher is doing you a favour or you would have simply said "sensei wa kare ni hanashimashita".
      While with the sentence you are saying:
      sensei kara [..] itadaita ---> I received (a favour) from the teacher
      which favour?
      kare ni hanashite --> to talk to him · close

        Comment
      • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #35 - If clauses (part 2)

        Posted on 26 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 105 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

        So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
        We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

        V-tara

        V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
        With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
        With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

        V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followe...

        Read more (1033 words more)

        So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
        We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

        V-tara

        V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
        With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
        With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

        V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followed by an apodosis expressing an opinion, advice, request, volitive or a guess.
        But it hasn't the same meaning of "nara".
        In fact, V-tara has the meaning of "when..." and not only "if..". Obviously, the clause with "when" express a condition that has to happen before the action in the principal clause.

        大阪に着いたら手紙を書いてください
        oosaka ni tsuitara tegami o kaite kudasai
        When you arrive in Osaka, write me a letter please

        車が治ったら山に行こう
        kuruma ga naottara yama ni ikou
        when (if) the car will be repaired, we'll go to the mountain

        It also have the meaning of "If, by chance, it happens that.."

        彼に見られたら恥ずかしい
        kare ni miraretara hazukashii
        It's emberrassing to be seen with him (If it happens that i'm seen with him, it's embarrassing)

        時間があったら映画を見に行こう
        jikan ga attara eiga o mi ni ikou
        If there is time, let's go to see a movie

        寒かったら大変だ
        samukattara taihen da
        If it's cold, it's troublesome

        私だったらそんなこはしない
        watashi dattara sonna koto wa shinai
        If it was me, i wouldn't do it

        Differences between V-ba, nara and V-tara

        Before talking about "to" that has it's particular use.. let's see the differences between these 3 ways to express a conditional period since they are similar.

        Temporal relation between protasis (P) and apodosis (A)

        Let's see this 3 sentences:

        ---------P----------------------------------A----------
        1)nihon e ikeba--------------sushi ga taberareru
        2)nihon e iku nara-----------sushi ga taberareru
        3)nihon e ittara--------------sushi ga taberareru

        Only V-tara tell that (P) happens before (A), so sentence 3 is "When you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi" "Once you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi"
        In sentence 1 and 2 (P) may happens both before or after (A).. so the translation is more hypothetical "If you go to Japan, you can eat sushi"
        The only difference is that with V-ba, (P) usually happens before (A), while with "nara" it may be both.
        Let's see other 3 examples to explain it:

        -----------P----------------------------------A---------
        1)nihon e ikeba-------------nihongo ga benkyou dekiru
        2)nihon e iku nara----------nihongo o oshiete ageyou
        3)nihon e ittara-------------nihongo o oshiete morainasai

        Again, in sentence 3 (P) happens before (A) "Since you have been in Japan, teach me japanese"
        In sentence 1, (P) happens before (A) "If you go to Japan, you can study Japanese" (there, in Japan)
        In sentence 2, (P) may happens both before or after (A) "If/When you go to Japan, teach me japanese". The sentence is good both if you ask to be teached japanese before he goes to Japan or once he is in Japan.
        Anyway, talking about temporal relation, you can consider V-ba and "nara" as almost the same thing.

        General condition vs Specific condition

        V-ba is used for general condition that has a consequence that usually happens. "If you... it always happens that.."
        While nara and V-tara are used for specific condition, single events. "When you... it happened that..."

        suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuku --> If you switch on, the radio turns on (normal event, it always happens)
        suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuita --> Every time i switched on, the radio turned on
        suicchi o hinettara rajio ga tsuita --> When i switched on, the radio turned on (you are describing the single event)

        Restriction depending of the kind of sentence in the apodosis

        V-ba is the one that expresses objectivity the most, so is usually not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a request, volitive, exhortative, imperative, a guess or prohibition.
        In that case use nara or V-tara.

        to

        "to" is used for natural events that happen regularly, habits, math and scientific rules, so the apodosis always expresses a natural and logic consequence.

        春になると花が咲きます
        haru ni naru to hana ga sakimasu
        When spring comes, flowers bloom

        3に2を足すと5になる
        3 ni 2 o tasu to 5 ni naru
        If you add 2 to 3, it becomes 5 (or simply 3+2=5 :D)

        雨が降るとここはよく洪水になる
        ame ga furu to koko wa yoku kouzui ni naru
        When it rains, this place is often flooded

        私が行くといつも彼女はケーキを作れる
        watashi ga iku to itsumo kanojo wa keeki o tsukureru
        When i go, she always make me a cake

        Just as V-ba, "to" is not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a guess, request, volitive etc...

        haru ni naru to hana o uemasu --> when spring comes flowers are planted
        haru ni naru uemashou---> is WRONG!

        To say "when spring comes, let's plant flowers", you have to use nara or V-tara. In this case V-tara is probably better.
        haru ni nattara uemashou --> When spring will arrive, let's plant flowers

        Real hypothesis

        When the condition is no more than a simple hypothesis, V-ba, nara, V-tara and to are used with hypothetical adverbs "moshi" or "mangaichi". In this case they must always be translated with "If.."

        もし彼が家にいれば会えます
        moshi kare ga ie ni ireba aemasu
        If he is at home, you can meet him

        万が一彼が来なかったらどうしよう
        mangaichi kare ga konakattara doushiyou
        If by chance he doesn't come, what would i do?

        もしインドにも行くならおみやげを買ってきてください
        moshi indo ni mo iku nara omiyage o katte kite kudasai
        If you go in India too, buy me a present please

        万が一ガラスが割れるとけがをしますよ
        mangaichi garasu ga wareru to kega o shimasu yo
        If the glass breaks, you'll get injured
        Unrealizable hypothesis

        This is an hypothesis on an event that can't be realized, so the action in the apodosis won't happen. The apodosis often ends with "noni"

        もっと安ければあのドレスを買うのに
        motto yasukereba ano doresu o kau noni
        If it was cheaper, I would buy that dress

        But the hypothesis is not true, cause actually that dress is not cheaper, so you won't buy it

        皆がよく働いたらもっと早く終わっただろうのに
        mina ga yoku hataraitara motto hayaku owatta darou noni
        If everyone had worked better, we would have probably finished earlier

        あしたでないならその会に行けるのに
        ashita de nai nara sono kai ni ikeru noni
        If it wasn't tomorrow, i could go to the meeting · close

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        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #34 - If clauses

          Posted on 23 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 170 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

          The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
          Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

          CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
          If .......... + then.....

          B5 + ba

          This represents the conditional forms...

          Read more (741 words more)

          The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
          Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

          CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
          If .......... + then.....

          B5 + ba

          This represents the conditional forms of verbs and adjectives. I will simply call it V-ba from now on.
          The verbs in V-Ba is used in the protasis.

          If the V-ba verb is an "action verb", you can't use volitive, exhortative, imperative, request, prohibition or advice in the apodosis.

          この薬を飲めば、治りますよ
          kono kusuri o nomeba naorimasu yo
          If you take this medicine, you'll get well

          この大学を出れば、いい会社に入れる
          kono daigaku o dereba ii kaisha ni haireru
          If i graduate from this university, I'll enter in a good company

          With stative verbs or adjective there are no restriction for the verb of the apodosis

          高くなければ会なさい
          takakunakereba kai nasai
          If it's not expensive, buy it

          日本へ行きたければ日本語を習ったほうがいいですよ
          nihon e ikitakereba nihongo o natta houga ii desu yo
          If you want to go to Japan, you better learn japanese

          B5+ba is the only form of V-ba, but even if V-ba hasn't a past form.. it can describe a past event if the verb of the apodosis is in past tense.
          In this case it describe an HABITUAL action and NOT a single action (to describe a single action in a past conditional period you have to use "tara".. one of the other conditional forms)

          あの人に頼めば必ず教えてくれた
          ano hito ni tanomeba kanarazu oshiete kureta
          If i asked that man, he always answered

          Compare it with this sentence with "tara":

          あの人に頼んだらすぐ教えてくれた
          ano hito ni tanondara sugu oshiete kureta
          WHEN i asked him, he immediately answered

          Nara

          Verbs (B4) + nara
          I-Adjectives (B4) + nara
          Na-Adjectives (root) + nara
          Nouns + nara

          When "nara" is used with a verb at present tense, it expresses a contitional clause on present or future event. This kind of protasis is usually followed by an apodosis that expresses a judgement, a guess, volitive or the opinion of the talker. It's rarely used with objective apodosis. You can consider "nara" complementary to V-ba in this case. When you can't use V-ba, you can use "nara".
          The subject of the protasis is usually at 2nd or 3rd person.

          あすいい天気なら行こう
          asu ii tenki nara ikou
          if tomorrow the weather is good, i'll go

          いい天気ではないなら行くまい
          ii tenki dewanai nara ikumai
          If the weather is not good, i won't go

          あなたが歌うなら私も歌います
          anata ga utau nara watashi mo utaimasu
          If you sing, I'll sing too

          日本へ行くなら日本語を勉強しておきなさい
          nihon e iku nara nihongo o benkyou shite okinasai
          If you go to Japan, study japanese
          Since you go to Japan, study japanese (first)

          ケーキを作るなら私にも一切れください
          keeki o tsukuru nara watashi ni mo ichi kire kudasai
          If (Since) you make a cake, give a piece to me too

          Used with verbs in past tense, it expresses a conditional clause on a past event that it's surely already happened. So it means "Since...., then.."

          ローマへ行ったならバチカンへも行ったでしょう
          rooma e itta nara bachikan e mo itta deshou
          Since you have been in Rome, you probably visited Vatican too

          彼に会ったならそのことを知っている
          kare ni atta nara sono koto o shitte iru
          Since you met him, you should know that thing

          "nara" can be used in conditional period with apodosis that expresses an advice/opinion.
          In this case the sentence is translated "If you want to.. then (i advice you to)..."

          テレビを買うならあの店が安いですよ
          terebi o kau nara ano mise ga yasui desu yo
          If you want to buy a TV, that store has low prices (--> so i advice you to go there)

          アメリカへ行くならぜひ ニューヨークへ行きなさい
          amerika e iku nara zehi nyuuyouku e ikinasai
          If you go to USA, you absolutely have to go to New York

          As we saw before, nara doesn't express only hypothesis but also verified/already happened events. So it doesn't only mean "if.." but also "Since..".
          Japanese has other expressions that can be used instead of "nara" when it means "Since.."

          They are: to suruto, to shitara, to sureba, to naruto.

          They are used at the end of the protasis with verbs in B3, and they are followed by the principal clauses

          彼は来ないとすると奥さんも来ないだろう
          kare wa konai to suruto okusan mo konai darou
          Since he doesn't come, his wife won't probably come too

          きのう彼は酒を飲みすぎたとなると今日頭がいたい
          kinou kare wa sake o nomi sugita to naruto kyou atama ga itai
          Since he drank too much yesterday, today he has headache

          Next lesson: the other 2 conditional forms: "tara" and "to" · close

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          • Let's Jap Together - Les. #33 - Guess/Uncert. - souda / kamo shirenai / hazu da

            Posted on 21 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 143 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

            After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

            souda / soudesu

            Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
            Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

            With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
            But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
            It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
            Let's look at this example:

            kono ringo wa oishi souda-...

            Read more (778 words more)

            After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

            souda / soudesu

            Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
            Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

            With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
            But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
            It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
            Let's look at this example:

            kono ringo wa oishi souda---> this apple looks delicious
            kono ringo wa ama souda---> this apple looks sweet
            kono ringo wa mazu souda---> this apple looks bad tasting
            kono ringo wa furu souda---> this apple looks old

            This sentence are all correct and they are made looking at the apple. The look of the apple makes the talker think that the apple may be "delicious" "sweet" "bad tasting" "old"

            You can't use souda with adjectives like "akai" (red) "ookii" (big) "marui" (rounded).. cause you are looking at the apple, so you can tell if it's red, big or rounded... you are not guessing.

            If it happens that you are far from the apple and you have to say "That apples seems red", you have to use youda or rashii --> "ano ringo wa akai youda"/"ano ringo wa akai rashii"

            Souda can also be used to make a guess on a future events that it seems they are going to happen soon. Also this guess is based on ocular observation.

            今にも雨が降りそうだ
            ima ni mo ame ga furi souda
            It looks like it's gonna rain soon

            このバスは止まりそうです
            kno basu wa tomari soudesu
            It seems that this bus is going to stop

            With potential verbs souda means "it looks like he can..." "it seems he can.."

            この車はまだ使えそうだ
            kono kuruma wa mada tsukae souda
            It looks like this car can still be used

            あの会社には入れそうではない
            ano kaisha ni wa haire soudewanai
            It seems i can't enter in that company

            Souda can be used in an attributive form and an adverbial form.
            The attributive form is "souna" while the adverbial is "souni"

            彼は高そうな車を買った
            kare wa taka souna kuruma o katta
            he bought a car that looks expensive

            彼はうれしそうに話した
            kare wa ureshi souni hanashita
            he spoke happily (he spoke in a way that looked happy)

            Now compre these sentences:

            ima ni mo ame ga furi souda --> It looks like is going to rain soon
            ame ga futte iru youda --> It seems it's raining (told by someone in direct contact with the rain)
            nihon de wa rokugatsu ni ame ga yoku furu youda (rashii) --> it seems that (i heard that) in japan it rains a lot on June
            tabun ashita ame ga furu darou --> It will probably rain tomorrow (subjective guess)

            kamo shirenai / kamo shiremasen

            Verbs: B4 + kamo shirenai
            I-Adjectives: B4 + kamo shirenai
            Na-Adjectives: Root + kamo shirenai
            Nouns: N + kamo shirenai

            With kamo shirenai you make a guess that is the most unsure among all the way we have seen. Who talks is not sure at all of what he is saying.

            私はいくかもしれないし行かないかもしれない
            watashi wa iku kamo shirenai shi ikanai kamo shirenai
            Maybe i'll go, maybe i won't go

            彼は音楽家かもしれない
            kare wa ongaguka kamo shirenai
            He may be a musician (but i'm not sure)

            Compare these sentences:

            kare wa kunai kamo shirenai --> Perhaps he won't come (i'm not sure)
            kare wa kunai darou --> He'll probably won't come
            kare wa kunai rashii --> I heard he won't come
            kare wa kunai youda --> It seems he won't come

            hazu da/desu

            Verbs: B4 + hazu da
            Adjectives: B4 + hazu da
            Nouns: N no hazu da

            This form means "It's supposed to.."
            In fact this is not normal guess, we are talking about something that we expect to happen or it should have already happened.

            彼は三時に駅に着くはずだ
            kare wa sanji ni eki ni tsuku hazu da
            He is supposed to arrive at the station at 3 o'clock

            授業はもう終わったはずだ
            jugyou wa mou owatta hazu da
            The lesson should have already finished

            The negative form of "hazu da" is "hazu ga (wa) nai"and it means "It's not possible that.."

            彼がそんなことを言うはずがない
            kare wa sonna koto o iu hazu ga nai
            It's not possible that he says something like that

            -ni chigai nai / -ni kimatte iru

            Even if this forms are still a guess, the talker is really sure of what he is saying. It means "No doubt that.." "It must..." "Surely..."

            彼が選ばれるにちがいない
            kare ga erabareru ni chigai nai
            No doubt that he will be elected

            そんなことをしたら先に叱られるにきまっている
            sonna koto o shitara sensei ni shikarareru ni kimatte iru
            If you do something like that, you'll surely be scolded by the teacher · close

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            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #32 - Guess/Uncertainty - rashii /youda

              Posted on 17 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 172 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

              Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

              rashii

              rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
              So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
              To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
              Just as darou/deshou, you have to ad...

              Read more (304 words more)

              Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

              rashii

              rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
              So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
              To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
              Just as darou/deshou, you have to add it at the end of the sentence to transform an affermative sentence into a guess.

              Verbs: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
              I-Adjectives: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
              Na-Adjectives: root + rashii/rashii desu
              Nouns: N+ rashii/rashii desu

              The negative guess can be made by both conjugating the verb of the sentence or conjugating rashii (rashikunai).


              あに人は山中さんらしい
              ano hito wa yamanaka-san rashii
              That man seems Yamanaka-san

              どろぼうもう出て行ったらしく、物音が止めた
              dorobou wa mou dete itta rashiku, monooto ga yameta
              It looks like the robber is already gone, the noises stopped

              あした鉄道はストで止まるらしいです
              ashita tetsudou wa suto de tomaru rashii desu
              I heard that the trains will stop tomorrow due to strike

              あの人は病気らしい
              ano hito wa byouki rashii
              As far as i know, that man is sick

              彼はみずきと結婚しないらしい
              kare wa mizuki to kekkon shinai rashii
              I heard that he won't marry Mizuki

              youda/youdesu

              Verbs: B4 + youda/youdesu
              I-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
              Na-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
              Nouns: N no youda/youdesu

              youda is used, just like rashii, to make a guessing with some foundation due to observation but it also add a psychological participation.
              He can be translated as "It seems.." "As far as i know.."

              父はもう帰ってきたようだ
              chichi wa mou kaette kita youda
              It seems my father is already returned

              雨が降っているようだった
              ame ga futte iru youdatta
              It seemed it was raining

              彼はダンススクールに通っているようだ
              kare wa dansu sukuuru ni kayotte iru youda
              As far as i know, he is attending a dance school

              火はもう消えたようです
              hi wa mou kieta youdesu
              It seems that the fire is already extinguished

              youda is also used to express subjective impressions and for guessing on your own behaviour

              その話は以前どこかで聞いたようだ
              sono hanashi wa izen dokoka de kiita youda
              I think i already heard this story somewhere [以前-->izen-->previously]

              私はま違っていたようだ
              watashi wa machigatte ita youda
              It seems i was wrong · close

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              • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #31 - Guess/Uncertainty - darou/deshou

                Posted on 15 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 87 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

                In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
                The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

                Darou / Deshou

                This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
                The...

                Read more (673 words more)

                In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
                The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

                Darou / Deshou

                This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
                The meaning is "I think that.." "Maybe..." "Perhaps.." "It may/might..."
                The structure is simple, you just have to add darou/deshou at the end of a sentence and they'll transform the affermative sentence into a guess.

                Verbs: B3 + darou/deshou
                I-Adj: B3 + darou/deshou
                Na-Adj: root + darou/deshou
                N: N + darou/deshou

                おそらく彼は今晩行くだろう
                osoraku kare wa konban iku darou
                He'll probably go tonight

                たぶん田中さんは映画に行かないだろう
                tabun tanaka-san wa eiga ni ikanai darou
                I think Tanaka-san doesn't go to the movies

                あの建物はたぶん学校だろう
                ano tatemono wa tabun gakkou darou
                That building is probably a school

                --The guess can also be done on past events:

                母はもう東京についたでしょう
                haha wa mou toukyou ni tsuita deshou
                I think my mother is already arrived in Tokyo

                --The guessing can be made involving the interlocutor using final particles as "ka" "ne" "yo" and "sa"
                With "ka" we make a guess asking for an aswer from the interlocutor
                With "ne" we make a guess asking for a confirmation from the interlocutor
                With "yo" and "sa" we are expressing the fact that even if it's a guessing we are confident on what we are saying.

                kare wa konban kuru deshou ka---> maybe he'll come tonight?
                kare wa konban kuru deshou ne---> maybe he'll come tonight, isn't it?
                kare wa konban kuru darou yo---> I'm quite sure he'll come tonight

                When the guessing is expressed in interrogative form, darou/deshou are used instead of the other way to express uncertainty. The guessing can be direct to an interlocutor or also to yourself.

                彼はまだあそこに住んでいるでしょうか
                kare wa mada asoko ni sunde iru deshou ka
                Do you know if he still live there?

                あしたも雪だろうか
                ashita mo yuki darou ka
                I wonder if it'll snow tomorrow too

                --When the guessing is made by a third person you have to use -to omotte iru (without darou/deshou)

                彼は私が頭がいいと思っている
                kare wa watashi ga atama ga ii to omotte iru
                He thinks I'm smart

                When the guessing was made in the past you have to use -to omotta

                私は彼がもう帰ってこたいだろうと思った
                watashi wa kare ga mou kaette konai darou to omotta
                I thought that he would have never come back

                --darou/deshou can be used in a conversation when who talks asks for a confirmation directly to the interlocutor with the meaning of "isn't it?"

                君はその本を彼にもう返しただろう
                kimi wa sono hon wo kare ni mou kaeshita darou
                You have probably already returned that book, isn't it?

                ほら、このセーターいいでしょう
                hora, kono seetaa ii deshou
                look, this sweater is nice, isn't it?

                --this structure has also an honorary form:

                Verbs: B2+ mashou/masudeshou
                Na-Adj: root + de arimashou
                N: N + de gozaimashou

                便利だから学生に喜ばれましょう
                benri da kare gakusei ni yorokobaremashou
                Since it's useful, it will probably be appreciated by the students

                たくさんのお金が必要でありましょう
                takusan no okane ga hitsuyou de arimashou
                A lot of money will probably be necessary [必要な-->hitsuyouna-->necessary]

                Literary expressions

                V-Godan: B1a + u
                Other verbs: B1 + you
                I-Adj: B1(-karo) + u
                Na-Adj: root + dearou
                N: N + dearou

                Negative: B3 + mai
                Emphatic Negative: B2 + wa shimai

                大臣は辞任するこのになろう
                daijin wa jinin suru koto ni narou
                I think the minister will resign [大臣-->daijin-->minister 辞任する-->jinin suru--> to resign]

                これは多くの反論が出てこよう
                kore wa ooku no hanron ga dete koyou
                About that, many opinion will probably come out [出て来る-->dete kuru-->To come out]

                コートがなければさぞ寒かろう
                kooto ga nakereba sazo samukarou
                If he doesn't have the coat, i'm sure he'll be cold [さぞ-->sazo-->surely]

                すぐにその問題を解決することが必要であろう
                sugu ni sono mondai o kaiketsu suru koto ga hitsuyou dearou
                It will probably be necessary to solve this problem immediately

                ドルはもうこれ以上下がるまい
                doru wa mou kore ijou sagarumai
                I don't think the dollar will go down anymore
                · close

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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #30 - Causative

                  Posted on 6 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 125 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                  Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

                  E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

                  V-Saseru

                  V. Godan: B1+seru
                  V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
                  kuru: kosaseru
                  suru: saseru

                  Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

                  kaku--->kakaseru
                  iu--->iwaseru
                  hanasu--->hanasaseru
                  yomu--->yomaseru
                  oyogu--->oyogaseru

                  deru--->desaseru
                  okiru--->okisaseru

                  Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

                  yomu-->...

                  Read more (944 words more)

                  Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

                  E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

                  V-Saseru

                  V. Godan: B1+seru
                  V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
                  kuru: kosaseru
                  suru: saseru

                  Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

                  kaku--->kakaseru
                  iu--->iwaseru
                  hanasu--->hanasaseru
                  yomu--->yomaseru
                  oyogu--->oyogaseru

                  deru--->desaseru
                  okiru--->okisaseru

                  Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

                  yomu-->read
                  yomaseru--> make (someone) read
                  yomasemasu--> make (someone) read (polite)
                  yomasenai--> don't make (someone) read
                  yomasemasen--> don't make (someone) read (polite)
                  yomaseta--> made (someone) read
                  yomasemashita--> made (someone) read (polite)
                  yomasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) read
                  yomasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) read
                  yomasete--> -te form

                  taberu--> eat
                  tabesaseru--> make (someone) eat
                  tabesasemasu--> make (someone) eat (polite)
                  tabesasenai--> don't make (someone) eat
                  tabesasemasen--> don't make (someone) eat (polite)
                  tabesaseta--> made (someone) eat
                  tabesasemashita--> made (someone) eat (polite)
                  tabesasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) eat
                  tabesasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) eat (polite)
                  tabesasete--> -te form

                  X wa Y ni N o V-Saseru ---> X make Y do N

                  This is the structure of the causative sentence with transitive verbs

                  母は妹に皿を洗わせた
                  haha wa imouto ni sara o arawaseta
                  My mother made my younger sister wash the dishes [皿-->sara-->dishes 洗う-->arau-->to wash]

                  彼女に田中さんを飛行場まで送らせよう
                  kanojo ni tanaka san o hikoujou made okuraseyou
                  I'll make her accompany tanaka-san till the airport [飛行場-->hikoujou-->airport 送る-->okuru-->to send]

                  The more complicated the sentence becomes, the most difficult is to make a literal translation. The translation of the last sentence in fact it's not. Sometime, you only have to understand the meaning and translate accordingly.

                  X wa Y ni/o V-Saseru

                  This is the structure of the causative sentence with intransitive verbs

                  社長は彼に/をイタリアへ行かせた
                  shachou wa kare ni/o itaria e ikaseta
                  The president made him go to Italy

                  どうして子供に/をプルで泳がせないのですか
                  doushite kodomo ni/o puru de oyogasenai no desuka
                  Why don't you make the kids swim in the pool?

                  The japanese causative express the idea of "make someone do", "push someone to do" but also the idea of "allow someone to do" "leave someone to do"

                  When it has the first meaning, it's like someone force someone else to do something. That's why is possibile, when "X" get an advantange by making "Y" doing something, to use the weakened form "-te morau"
                  "Morau" means "to recieve" but as i already said, in japanese "give/receive" are quite complicate... and we'll see them later.. for the moment just remember this option and look at this example:

                  私は田中さんに手紙を読ませた
                  watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yomaseta
                  I made tanaka read the letter

                  私は田中さんに手紙を読んでもらった
                  watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yonde moratta
                  I asked tanaka to read the letter for me

                  The second one is way more kind.

                  In the next sentences the causative has the second meaning:

                  もうおとななのだから、好きなようにさせましょう
                  mou otona nano dakara, sukina youni sasemashou
                  Since he is an adult already, let's leave him do what he likes

                  Translating the causative as "make him do what he likes" is a contradiction.. so it's better "leave him do".. cause this is the true meaning.

                  子供をここで遊ばせないでください
                  kodomo o koko de asobasenaide kudasai
                  Please, don't leave the kids play here

                  In this sentence, "don't make the children play here" would be still acceptable, but you understand that it's not that you "push" the kids to play there.. it's more like you "leave" the kids play there.

                  How to pick "ni" or "o"

                  - If there is another complement marked with "ni" use "o" and viceversa
                  - If Y is inanimate use "o"
                  mizu o koraseru (make the water freeze)
                  - If the verbs express a psycological reaction use "o"
                  sensei o komaraseru (make the sensei embarassed)
                  gakusei o warawaseru (make the students laugh)

                  Intransitive verbs that have a transitive version

                  Do you remember those intransitive verbs that also have a corresponding transitive version? no? I talked about them in lesson #16 ^^
                  Well, for those verbs, the causative form of the intransitive verbs has similar meaning of the transitive verb. So the transitive verb is generally used.

                  neru-->to sleep
                  nekasu--> to put to sleep

                  kodomo ga neru ---> the kid sleeps
                  kodomo o neraseru ---> I make the kid sleep (causative of neru)
                  kodomo o nekasu ---> I put the kid to sleep

                  noru--> to get on
                  noseru--> to make someone get on

                  haha ga kisha ni noru ---> my mother get on the train
                  haha o kisha ni noraseru --->I make my mother get on the train (causative of noru)
                  haha o kisha ni noseru ---> I make my mother get on the train

                  In both cases, the last sentence is used, even if the meaning may be slightly different

                  V-sasu

                  This is another way to make a verb causative. But this is used only in oral japanese, it's considered really colloquial.

                  V. Godan: B1+su
                  V. Ichidan: B1+sasu
                  kuru: kosasu
                  suru: sasu

                  Some examples:

                  kaku--->kakasu
                  iu--->iwasu
                  hanasu--->hanasasu
                  yomu--->yomasu
                  oyogu--->oyogasu

                  deru--->desasu
                  okiru--->okisasu

                  This causative form is conjugated like a godan verb endin in -su.
                  I don't conjugate it right now cause the lesson is already sooo long :D

                  All what i said for V-saseru is still valid for V-sasu too.. so i just make a pair of examples.

                  彼に本当のことを言わしましょう
                  kare ni hontou no koto o iwashimashou
                  Lets make him tell the truth

                  彼にこれを作らしてください
                  kare ni kore o tsukurashite kudasai
                  Make him do this please

                  · close

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                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #29 - Passive

                    Posted on 4 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 73 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

                    Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

                    V-rareru

                    V. Godan: B1+reru
                    V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
                    kuru: korareru
                    suru: sareru

                    No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
                    Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
                    This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

                    Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

                    kaku--->kakar...

                    Read more (1167 words more)

                    Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

                    V-rareru

                    V. Godan: B1+reru
                    V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
                    kuru: korareru
                    suru: sareru

                    No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
                    Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
                    This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

                    Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

                    kaku--->kakareru
                    iu--->iwareru
                    yomu--->yomareru
                    kiru(to cut)--->kirareru
                    katsu--->katareru

                    taberu--->taberareru
                    kiru(to wear)--->kirareru

                    As the potential form, also the passive form of the verb can be conjugated like a normal ichidan verb in -eru.

                    yomu--> read
                    yomareru--> is read
                    yomaremasu--> is read (polite)
                    yomarenai--> isn't read
                    yomaremasen--> isn't read (polite)
                    yomareta--> was read
                    yomaremashita--> was read (polite)
                    yomarenakatta--> wasn't read
                    yomaremasen deshita--> wasn't read (polite)
                    yomarete--> -te form

                    suteru--> throw
                    suterareru--> is thrown
                    suteraremasu--> is thrown (polite)
                    suterarenai--> isn't thrown
                    suteraremasen--> isn't thrown (polite)
                    suterareta--> was thrown
                    suteraremashita--> was thrown (polite)
                    suterarenakatta--> wasn't thrown
                    suteraremasen deshita--> wasn't thrown (polite)
                    suterarete--> -te form

                    X wa Y ni/ni yotte/kara V-rareru

                    This is the structure of the passive sentence.
                    X is who is subjected to the action
                    Y is the agent complement who does the action

                    Active sentence:
                    父は兄を殴った
                    chichi wa ani o nagutta
                    My father beat my older brother (兄-->ani-->older brother 殴る-->naguru-->to beat]

                    Passive sentence:
                    兄は父に殴られた
                    ani wa chichi ni nagurareta
                    My older brother was beaten by my father

                    山田さんの財布はすりに盗まれた
                    yamada-san no saifu wa suri ni nusumareta
                    Yamada's wallet was robbed by a pickpocket [財布-->saifu-->wallet すり-->suri-->pickpocket 盗む-->nusumu-->to steal]

                    そんなことをすると先生に叱られますよ
                    sonna koto o suru to sensei ni shikararemasu yo
                    If you do something like that, you'll be scolded by the teacher [叱る-->shikaru-->to scold]

                    when to use "ni", "ni yotte" or "kara" to mark the agent complement

                    Usually "ni" is used, but there are sentences where is better to use the others.

                    If Y is a PERSON:

                    -Usually---> "ni"
                    -With "directional" verbs you can use "kara" but also "ni". With "directional" verbs I mean those verbs who express the movement in some way.. like.. "send" or "give (a present)"
                    -If there is another complement marked with "ni" in the sentence, use "ni yotte" or "kara"

                    この指輪は彼から私に送られた
                    kono yubiwa wa kare kara watashi ni okurareta
                    This ring has been given to me by him [指輪-->yubiwa-->ring 送る-->okuru-->to give]

                    これは八月に彼の妻によって書かれた
                    kore wa hachigatsu ni kare no tsuma ni yotte kakareta
                    This has been written by his wife on August [八月-->hachigatsu-->August 妻-->tsuma-->wife

                    If Y is an OBJECT:

                    -if the object is concrete --->"ni"
                    -if the object is abstract ---> "ni yotte"

                    私のねこは車にひかれた
                    watashi no neko wa kuruma ni hikareta
                    My cat has been run over by a car

                    彼は信仰によって救われた
                    kare wa shinkou ni yotte sukuwareta
                    He was saved by faith [信仰-->shinkou-->faith 救う-->sukuu-->to save]

                    When the agent is clear due to the context, the active sentence is usually used instead of the passive one. Especially if the direct object of the active sentence (that would be the subject of the passive sentence) is an inanimate things and so unable to execute an action.
                    But with historical, objective, economic or social facts/events the passive sentence is used without any problem

                    英語は多くの国で勉強されています
                    eigo wa ooku no kuni de benkyou sarete imasu
                    English is being studied in many countries [多く-->ooku-->many 国-->kuni-->country]

                    この曲はショペンによって作られました
                    kono kyoku wa shopen ni yotte tsukuraremashita
                    This music has been composed by Chopin [曲-->kyoku-->music/song]

                    *If "Y" is the author, than you have to use "ni yotte"

                    Passive to express harm, bother and annoyance

                    The japanese passive sentence can also be used to express a meaning of harm, bother or annoyance caused to the subject by the agent of the passive sentence. In this case, the passive sentence can also be used with intransitive verbs.
                    That's why it's really difficult to explain the meaning since there is nothing similar in english.. so there isn't a direct translation either..
                    Let's see few examples:

                    Active:
                    ame ga futta----> It rained
                    Passive:
                    kare wa ame ni furareta----> It rained (and he was annoyed by it)

                    Since "to rain" is an intransitive verb, the second passive sentence is impossibile to translate in english.. in this case you can translate it as if it was an active sentence, pointing out that the subject (in this case "he") was annoyed by that.

                    Active:
                    otto ga shinda----> My husband died
                    Passive:
                    otto ni shinareta----> My husband died (It's so terrible)

                    Again, it's difficult to give a translation to the passive sentence. The meaning is that I was harmed by the death of my husband, I'm not only telling a fact.

                    Active:
                    iyana kyaku ga kita----> An unwelcome guest came
                    Passive:
                    iyana kyaku ni korareta----> It happened to me that an unwelcome guest came (and it sucks)

                    Active:
                    chichi wa boku no kanojo kara no tegami o yonda ----> My father read the letter from my girlfriend
                    Passive:
                    boku no kanojo kara no tegami wa chichi ni yomareta ----> The letter from my girlfriend was read by my dad
                    Passive of harm/bother/annoyance:
                    boku wa chichi ni kanojo kara no tegami o yomareta ---> It sucks that my father read the letter from my girlfriend

                    Probably this last example is the one that can help you understanding the most since it's done with a transitive verb.. and you may see the real difference between a normal passive sentence and a this passive sentence of harm/bother/annoyance.
                    The topic of the sentence becomes the one who is annoyed by what happened.. even if he isn't who is directly subjected to the action.

                    "Jihatsu" expressions

                    Japanese has a group of expressions called "jihatsu" (naturalness).
                    These expressions are used for events, feelings or action that happens against or without human will. They are used for things that can't be controlled by men.

                    X wa (N ga) V-rareru

                    This structure is used with "sentimental" verbs:
                    kanjiru (to feel/to sense/to notice)
                    shinobu (to remember with nostalgia)
                    anzuru (to be worried/concerned)
                    shinpai suru (to be worried/concerned)
                    odoruku (to be surprised)

                    or with "thinking" verbs:
                    kangaeru (to think)
                    omou (to think)
                    omoidasu (to remember)

                    X is the person who feels/thinks
                    N is what makes X feels/thinks

                    母の健康が心配される
                    haha no kenkou ga shinpai sareru
                    I'm concerned about my mother's health

                    最近、彼が冷たく感じられる
                    saikin, kare ga tsumetaku kanjirareru
                    Recently, I feel he is cold
                    · close

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                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #28 - Potential Forms - V-eru

                      Posted on 1 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 227 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

                      In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
                      Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

                      V-eru

                      V. Godan: B5-ru
                      V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
                      kuru: korareru
                      suru: dekiru

                      An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

                      Some examples:

                      kaku--->kakeru
                      iu--->ieru
                      hanasu--->hanaseru
                      tobu--->toberu
                      yomu--->yomeru
                      oyogu--...

                      Read more (315 words more)

                      In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
                      Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

                      V-eru

                      V. Godan: B5-ru
                      V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
                      kuru: korareru
                      suru: dekiru

                      An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

                      Some examples:

                      kaku--->kakeru
                      iu--->ieru
                      hanasu--->hanaseru
                      tobu--->toberu
                      yomu--->yomeru
                      oyogu--->oyogeru

                      deru--->derareru
                      okiru--->okirareru

                      You can conjugate the potential form of the verb. To do it, consider it just like a normal Ichidan verb in -eru

                      kaku--> write
                      kakeru--> can write
                      kakemasu--> can write (polite)
                      kakenai--> can't write
                      kakemasen--> can't write (polite)
                      kaketa--> could write
                      kakemashita--> could write (polite)
                      kakenakatta--> couldn't write
                      kakemasen deshita--> couldn't write (polite)
                      kekete--> -te potential form

                      It's like you attach the various auxiliary verbs to the B5 of the godan verbs instead the normal conjugated base they need

                      deru--> exit
                      derareru--> can exit
                      deraremasu--> can exit (polite)
                      derarenai--> can't exit
                      deraremasen--> can't exit (polite)
                      derareta--> could exit
                      deraremashita--> could exit (polite)
                      derarenakatta--> couldn't exit
                      deraremasen deshita--> couldn't exit (polite)
                      derarete--> -te potential form

                      X wa A ga V-eru

                      彼はパスタが作れます
                      kare wa pasuta ga tsukuremasu
                      He can make pasta

                      妹は昔ピアノがひけました
                      imouto wa mukashi piano ga hikemashita
                      Some time ago, my younger sister could play piano [昔-->mukashi-->old days]

                      それはこの図書館で調べられる
                      sore wa kono toshokan de shiraberareru
                      You can make research about that in this library [調べる-->shiraberu-->to research]

                      私はひらがなが書けますが漢字は書けません
                      watashi wa hiragana ga kakemasu ga kanji wa kakemasen
                      I can't write hiragana but not kanji

                      彼は卵が食べられません
                      kare wa tamago ga taberaremasen
                      He can't eat eggs

                      Also V-eru may mean "it's allowed, it's not allowed" depending on the context

                      ここははだしでは入れません
                      koko wa hadashi de wa hairemasen
                      It's not allowed to enter here barefoot [はだし-->hadashi-->barefoot]

                      Lately, in Japan, they started to get the potential form of ichidan verbs just as the godan verbs with "B5+ru" instead of "B1-rareru"but it's still considered colloquial:

                      base form----------B1-rareru-----------B5-ru
                      miru------------------mirareru-----------mireru
                      kiru-------------------kirareru------------kireru
                      taberu--------------taberareru--------tabereru
                      okiru-----------------okirareru----------okireru · close

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