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DottDivine

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dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 7 years ago. He owns like 1,649 Jpops and was last seen here about 9 hours ago

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  • Let's Learn Japanese Together Lessn #42 - Final Clause

    Posted on 23 October, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 270 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

    Final clauses are subordinate clauses that express the purpose of the action described in the principal clause.

    tame (ni)

    Verbs: B4 + tame (ni)
    Nouns: N + no + tame (ni)
    I-Adjectives: B2(-ku) + naru/suru + tame (ni)
    Na-Adjectives: B2(ni) + naru/suru + tame (ni)

    These clause can be translated as "in order to.." or simply "do something to ..."

    やせるために体操をする
    yaseru tame ni taisou o suru
    In order to lose weight, i do exercises

    車...

    Read more (1179 words more)

    Final clauses are subordinate clauses that express the purpose of the action described in the principal clause.

    tame (ni)

    Verbs: B4 + tame (ni)
    Nouns: N + no + tame (ni)
    I-Adjectives: B2(-ku) + naru/suru + tame (ni)
    Na-Adjectives: B2(ni) + naru/suru + tame (ni)

    These clause can be translated as "in order to.." or simply "do something to ..."

    やせるために体操をする
    yaseru tame ni taisou o suru
    In order to lose weight, i do exercises

    車を買うために貯金をした
    kuruma o kau tame ni chokin o shita
    I saved money to buy a car

    彼女はきれいになるために高い化粧品を買った
    kanojo wa kirei ni naru tame ni takai keshouhin o katta
    She bought expensive cosmetics to become prettier

    verb (B2) (or noun) + ni + Verb of motion

    This is easier to explain with an example, since in english it works the same.
    This structure is comparable to the english "I go... to..." "i came to..."
    Like: "I came here to give you this book"
    "to give you this book" is our final clause and can be translated in japanese using "verb + ni + verb of motion"

    Let's clarify everything with sample sentences:


    変な男があなたに会いに来ました
    henna otoko ga anata ni ai ni kimashita
    A weird man came to see you

    中華料理を食べに横浜へ行きませんか
    chuukaryouri o tabe ni yokohama e ikimasenka
    Why don't we go to Yokohama to eat chinese?

    今、買い物に行くところです
    ima, kaimono ni iku tokoro desu
    Now, i'm just going shopping

    Verbs of motion that may be used in this structure are:

    行く- iku - to go
    来る- kuru - to come
    帰る- kaeru - to return
    出る- deru - to leave
    出かける- dekakeru - to go out, to depart
    入る- hairu - to enter
    寄る- yoru - to pass by, to drop in
    まわる- mawaru - to go around

    But also with those verbs is possible to use "tame ni" instead of only "ni".
    The difference is:
    - "ni" + verb of motion is used for daily, personal or insignificant action
    - "tame ni" + verb of motion is used for public or important action

    首相は貿易をさせるためにアメリカへ行った
    shushou wa boueki o saseru tame ni amerika e itta
    The prime minister went to U.S. to promote trade

    You can use "tame ni" also when between "verb + ni" and the verb of motion there are other elements.

    彼女は迷子になった子供を捜すために通行人に開きながら町中をまわった
    kanojo wa maigo ni natta kodomo o sagasu tame ni tsuukounin ni hirakinagara machijuu o mawatta
    She went around all the city asking to the people walking by in order to find her lost child

    This sentence is quite complicated so writing "kanojo wa maigo ni natta kodomo o sagashi ni tsuukounin ni hirakinagara machijuu o mawatta", even if grammatically right, can make the sentence difficult to understand.

    ni + Verbs/Adjectives that express utility

    Verbs or adjectives that express utility are:

    使う- tsukau - to use
    便利な- benrina - useful
    必要な- hitsuyouna - necessary
    役立つ- yakudatsu - to be useful, to serve the purpose
    いい/よい- good

    Verbs: B4 + no + ni + Verb/Adjective of utility
    Nouns: N + ni + Verb/Adjective of utility

    This structure is used to describe general case and not specific situation.

    辞書は言葉を習うのに役立つ
    jisho wa kotoba o narau no ni yakudatsu
    the dictionary is useful to learn words

    As you can understand, this is a pretty general statement.. i couldn't use this structure to say "THIS book is useful to learn japanese word" cause i would talk about a specific situation.

    これはパンを作るのに使います
    kore wa pan o tsukuru no ni tsukaimasu
    This is used to make the bread

    これは仕事に必要な度具です
    kore wa shigoto ni hitsuyouna dogu desu
    This is a tool required for the job

    B4 + niwa

    This structure is used to translate this specific english sentence:
    "To do something, ....."

    字を書くにはペンと紙が必要だ
    ji o kaku niwa pen to kami ga hitsuyou da
    To write, pen and paper are necessary

    日本へ行くにはお金がかかる
    nihon e iku niwa okane ga kakaru
    To go to Japan, you need a lot of money

    全部入れるにはちいさすぎる
    zenbu haireru niwa chiisa sugiru
    To put everything inside, it's too small

    youni

    You can use "youni" in final clauses with the meaning of "so that" "in order to" "in order that"

    風邪をひかないようにセーターを着なさい
    kaze o hikanai youni seetaa o kinasai
    Wear a sweater so that you won't catch a cold

    花がきれいに咲くように肥料をやろう
    hana ga kirei ni saku youni hiryou o yarou
    Let's fertilize so that the flowers will bloom nicely

    約束の時間に遅れないように早めに家を出た
    yakosoku no jikan ni okurenai youni hayame ni ie o deta
    In order to do not be late for the appointment, i left home early

    "youni" is also used for wishes, prayers. requestes or advices

    病気が早く治るように祈っています
    byouki ga hayaku naoru youni inotte imasu
    I pray for your quick recovery (lit. I pray so that you recover quickly)

    こんなことが二度と起こらないように注意しなさい
    konna koto ga nido to okoranai youni chuui shinasai
    Pay attention so that something like that don't happen again

    "youni", when used with suru/naru, get a particular meaning.
    "youni suru" means "to make sure"
    "youni naru + verb (often in its potential form)" means "to go so far to (being able to)"

    朝早く起きるようにしなさい
    asa hayaku okiru youni shinasai
    Make sure to wake up early at morning

    もうすぐ私は日本語が話せるようになるでしょう
    mou sugu watashi wa nihongo ga hanaseru youni naru deshou
    I'll probably be able to speak japanese soon

    夫はやっと家事を手伝うようになった
    otto wa yatto kaji o tetsudau youni natta
    My husband finally helps me with housework

    tame ni VS youni

    "tame ni" expresses the specific purpose of a direct action. The subject of the principal clause is the same of the final clause.
    The action described in both principal and subordinate clause MUST be achievable thanks to the subject's will.

    "youni" is used in an indirect way.. with the meaning of "so that" "in order that".
    You can use it when principal and subordinate clause have different subjects.
    The realization of the action of the subordinate is out of control of the subject's will.

    毛皮のコートを買うためにお金をおるした
    kegawa no kooto o kau tame ni okane o orushita
    I withdrew some money to buy a fur coat

    In this sentence you can't use "youni". The action "buy a fur coat" is easily realizable buy the subject if he wants to. And it's the direct porpuse of "withdrawing money"

    電話をかけるために車をやめた
    denwa o kakeru tame ni kuruma o yameta
    I stopped the car to make a phone call

    Again, "youni" can't be used in this sentence, for the same reasons as the previous sentence.

    皆によく聞こえるように大きい声で話した
    mina ni yoku kikoeru youni ookii koe hanashita
    I talked loudly so that everyone could hear me

    Here the subjects of the clauses are different, so no matter how "loudly you talk" but you can't be sure to be heard. So the action of the subordinate is out of your control.
    So you can't use tame ni.

    子供が英語を習うようにあの学校へ入れた
    kodomo ga eigo o narau youni ano gakkou e haireta
    I made our son enter that school so that he could learn english.

    Again, the subject of the principal hasn't control over the action of the subordinate. Hence, you can't use "tame ni".
    · close

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    • Let's Learn Japanese Together Lesson #41 - Adversative/Concessive Clause

      Posted on 10 October, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 143 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

      The structure of these sentences is :

      Subordinate clause + conjunction + Principal clause

      When the subordinate clause expresses a real, happened or verified fact

      ga / keredo(mo)

      Verbs/Adjectives: B3 + ga/keredo(mo)
      Nouns: N + da + ga/keredo(mo)

      The meaning of these conjunctions is simply "but" "however"

      行きたかったけれどもお金がなくて行けませんでした
      ikitakatta keredomo okane ga nakute ikemasen deshita
      I wanted to...

      Read more (688 words more)

      The structure of these sentences is :

      Subordinate clause + conjunction + Principal clause

      When the subordinate clause expresses a real, happened or verified fact

      ga / keredo(mo)

      Verbs/Adjectives: B3 + ga/keredo(mo)
      Nouns: N + da + ga/keredo(mo)

      The meaning of these conjunctions is simply "but" "however"

      行きたかったけれどもお金がなくて行けませんでした
      ikitakatta keredomo okane ga nakute ikemasen deshita
      I wanted to go, but i couldn't cause i hadn't money

      田中さんはよく仕事をするが彼の弟はしない
      tanaka-san wa yoku shigoto o suru ga kare no otouto wa shinai
      Tanaka works well, but his brother doesn't

      The conjuctive particle "ga" also has other functions:

      -it links predicates with the same subject with the meaning of "and also"

      彼は英語もできるがイタリア語もできる
      kare wa eigo mo dekiru ga itariago mo dekiru
      He knows english and also italian

      - simple conjunction (like "and")

      あした客が来るが、夕食はどうしようか
      ashita kyaku ga kuru ga, yuushoku wa doushouka
      Tomorrow guests will come, what should we have for dinner?

      noni

      Verbs/Adjectives: B4 or V-Ta + noni
      Nouns: N + na + noni

      The meaning of "noni" is "although" "despite" "even though"

      In this structure, the principal clause expresses an action contrary to what you would expect in reference to the subordinate clause.

      老人が困っているのにだれも助けてあげない
      roujin ga komatte iru noni daremo tasukete agenai
      Although the old man is in trouble, no one helps him

      英語の先生なのに英語が話せない
      eigo no sensei na noni eigo ga hanasenai
      Even if he is an english teacher, he can't speak english

      When you use "noni", subjective expression aren't usually possible in the principal clause.
      So sentences like these:
      ame ga futte iru noni, aruite ikinasai --> Even if it's raining, go by foot
      ame ga futte iru noni, aruite ikimashou --> Even if it's raining, let's go by foot
      ame ga futte iru noni, aruite kuru darou --> Even if it's raining, i think he'll come by foot
      ame ga futte iru noni, ureshii --> Even if it's raining, I'm happy

      must be written using "ga/keredomo":
      ame ga futte iru ga aruite ikinasai
      ame ga futte iru keredomo aruite ikimashou
      ame ga futte iru ga aruite kuru darou
      ame ga futte iru keredomo ureshii

      Other expression of "although", "despite"

      彼はもうすぐ出発するにもかかわらずうれしがっている
      kare wa mou sugu shuppatsu suru ni mo kakawarazu ureshigatte iru
      Although he is leaving soon, he is happy

      よく知らないくせに、あの人は何でも説明したい
      yoku shiranai kuse ni, ano hito wa nandemo setsumai shitai
      Although he doesn't know it well, he wants to explain everything

      彼はお金を持っていながら、つつましい生活をしている
      kare wa okane motte inagara, tsutsumashii seikatsu o shite iru
      Despite being rich, he is living an humble life

      彼は毎年中国に行くものの、中国語が話せない
      kare wa maitoshi chuugoku ni iku mono no, chuugokugo ga hanasenai
      Although he goes to China every year, he can't speak chinese

      When the subordinate clause expresses a possibility, an unreal or unverified fact

      temo

      Verbs/I-Adjectives: -te form + mo
      Nouns/Na-Adjectives: root + demo/deattemo

      Then meaning is "even if..."

      ヨーロッパはお金がなくても楽しめます
      yooroppa wa okane ga nakutemo tanoshimemasu
      You can enjoy Europe even if you don't have money

      あんなものは安くても買いません
      anna mono wa yasukutemo kaimasen
      Even if it was cheap, i wouldn't buy something like that

      たとえあなたがあゆまっても許してくれませんよ
      tatoe anata ga ayumattemo yurushite koremasen yo
      Even if you apologize, he won't forgive you

      temo vs noni

      彼は雪が降っても出かける
      kare wa yuki ga futtemo dekakeru
      Even if it snows, he will go out

      彼は雪が降っているのに出かける
      kare wa yuki ga futte iru noni dekakeru
      Although it's snowing, he will go out

      The difference between the 2 sentences is that in the first, "Even if it snows" is only an hypothesys, it's not actually snowing while talking. So this sentence can be used with the meaning of "Even if it will snow".
      This is also the reason why you use "v-te" and you can't use "V-ta", cause if you wanna say "Even if it snowed, he went out".. you already lived the situation, so "even if it snowed" is a "real, happened fact" and you use "noni" saying "yuki ga futta noni".
      In fact, in the second sentence, it's snowing for real.

      · close

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      • Let's Learn Japanese Together Lesson #40 - Reason Clause

        Posted on 20 September, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 188 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

        Ok, another kind of subordinate clause: reason clause.

        kara

        do you remember that "v-te kara" indicate a time clause right?
        well if the verb (or adjective) is present or past tense, kara ends a reason clause. (with nouns it's N + dakara)
        This kind of reason clause is used when the principal clause express a subjective opinion, volitive, imperative, request, prohibition, guess or a question.

        もう遅いから寝ましょうか
        mou osoi kara nemashou ka
        Since it...

        Read more (677 words more)

        Ok, another kind of subordinate clause: reason clause.

        kara

        do you remember that "v-te kara" indicate a time clause right?
        well if the verb (or adjective) is present or past tense, kara ends a reason clause. (with nouns it's N + dakara)
        This kind of reason clause is used when the principal clause express a subjective opinion, volitive, imperative, request, prohibition, guess or a question.

        もう遅いから寝ましょうか
        mou osoi kara nemashou ka
        Since it's late already, lets go to sleep?

        高速道路は混んでいるからやめたほうがいいですよ
        kousokudouro wa konde iru kara yameta houga ii desu yo
        Since the highway is congested, we better avoid it

        これをあげるから泣くのをやめなさい
        kore o ageru kara naku no o yamenasai
        Since i give this to you, stop crying

        node

        This kind of reason clause is instead more objective.
        The verb is again at present or past tense while with nouns is N+na+node.

        この本は役に立つのでよく売れています
        kono hon wa yakunitatsu node yoku urete imasu
        This book sell well cause it's useful

        ベネチアは海に囲まれているので湿気が多い
        benechia wa umi ni kakomarete iru no de shikke ga ooi
        Since Venice is surrounded by see, there is a lot of moisture

        ここは田舎なので野菜がおいしい
        koko wa inaka na node yashi ga oishii
        Since it's countryside here, vegetables are delicious

        When you have to make questions or excuses, "node" it's usually used instead of "kara" to make the sentence more objecive.

        飛行場に行くので失礼します
        hikoujou ni iku node shitsurei shimasu
        Excuse me but i have to go to the airport

        仕事をしなければならなかったので来れませんでした
        shigoto o shinakereba naranakatta node koremasen deshita
        I couldn't come cause i had to work

        よくわかりませんでしたのでもう一度説明してくださいませんか
        yoku wakarimasen deshita node mou ichido setsumei shite kudasaimasenka
        I didn't understand well, can you explain it one more time?

        kara vs node

        In addition to what i already said, "kara" is used instead of "node" when:

        - When the cosequence precedes the reason clause.

        太郎が泣いている。友達に頭をぶたれたからだ
        tarou ga naite iru. tomodachi ni atama o butareta kara da
        Tarou is crying. It's cause he has been hitted in the head by his friends.

        きのうはホテルに泊まった。主電車を逃したからだ
        kinou wa hoteru ni tomatta. shudensha o nogashita kara da
        I stopped in an hotel yesterday. It's cause i missed the last train.

        - When you have to use a time clause with "darou" or "noda" [we'll talk about noda in the future]

        彼は予定どうりに着くだろうから、早く駅へ行ったほうがいいですよ
        kare wa yotei douri ni tsuku darou kara, hayaku eki e itta houga ii desu yo
        Since it seems he'll arrive on time, I better go to the station early

        Te-Form

        Also the te-form may be used as reason clause (we talked about it already).
        This kind of reason clause is often used when the principal clause expresses feelings or emotional behaviour.
        It CAN'T be used with imperative, volitive, guess, prohibition and so on..

        金がなくて困っている
        kane ga nakute komatte iru
        I'm in trouble cause i don't have money.

        あの店は高くてびっくりしました
        ano mise wa takakute bikkuri shimashita
        I was surprised cause that shop is expensive

        学生たちは試合に勝って大騒ぎをしている
        gakuseitachi wa shiai ni katte daisawagi o shite iru
        Students are making great celebrations cause they won the match

        tame (ni)

        "tame (ni)" ends a reason clause that means "Because of.." "Due to.."

        今日は会議があるため、授業はありません
        kyou wa kaigi ga aru tame, jugyou wa arimasen
        Because of the assembly, There aren't lessons today.

        彼はゆうべ遅く寝たため、朝寝坊した
        kare wa yuube osoku neta tame, asa neboushita
        He wake up late this morning cause he went to sleep late last night

        sei de

        "sei de" is used in reason clauses that mean "Because of an incovenience.." "Due to an inconvenience.."

        客が遅れたせいでパーティが台無しになった
        kyaku ga osoreta sei de paati ga dainashi ni natta
        Because the guests were late, the party was ruined

        okage de

        "okage de" is used in reason clauses that mean "Because of a favorable event..." "Due to a favorable event..." "Thanks to.."

        父が送金してくれるおかげで、私は安心して勉強できます
        chichi ga soukin shite kureru okage de, watashi wa anshin shite benyou dekimasu
        Because of my father who send me money, I can study without concern.

        Conjunction between 2 indipendent sentences with the meaning of "so" "therefore" "hence"

        These conjunctions are:
        dakara
        desukara
        sokode
        sorede
        sonotame
        shitagatte

        頭がいたい。だから薬を飲んだ
        atama ga itai. dakara kusuri o nonda
        I have headache so I took a medicine.
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        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #39 - Time Clauses (Part 2)

          Posted on 18 September, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 176 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

          ato (de) ---> 後(で)

          "ato" ends a time clause that means "After i did..."
          The verb in this time clause is at PAST tense (or nouns + no + ato (de)).

          テニスをした後、シャワーをあびた
          tenisu o shita ato, shawaa o abita
          After having played tennis, i took a shower

          江戸に幕府ができた後、江戸はよく発展した
          edo ni bakufu ga dekita ato, edo wa yoku hatten shita
          After the shogunate was estabilished in Edo,...

          Read more (769 words more)

          ato (de) ---> 後(で)

          "ato" ends a time clause that means "After i did..."
          The verb in this time clause is at PAST tense (or nouns + no + ato (de)).

          テニスをした後、シャワーをあびた
          tenisu o shita ato, shawaa o abita
          After having played tennis, i took a shower

          江戸に幕府ができた後、江戸はよく発展した
          edo ni bakufu ga dekita ato, edo wa yoku hatten shita
          After the shogunate was estabilished in Edo, the city developed well

          But this time clause, despite the past tense, can be used for future events too. Remember that the japanese past tense in dependent clause has no absolute temporal value, but it just tell that the action of the dependent clause happens before the action of the principal clause.

          あした、映画を見た後でレストランへ行こう
          ashita, eiga o mita ato de resutoran e ikou
          Tomorrow, after seeing a movie, we'll go to a restorant

          V-te kara

          if "kara" is used with V-te in a dependent clause it ends a clause that may have 2 meanings:

          -"After i did..." just as "ato (de)"

          映画を見てから、ホテルへ行きましょう
          eiga o mite kara, hoteru e ikimashou
          After seeing a movie, let's go in hotel

          宿題が終わってからテニスをした
          shukudai ga owatte kara tenisu o shita
          After having finished homework, i played tennis

          Remember that "kara" has temporal meaning only with V-te!

          - when the principal clause has a stative verb or a verb in continuous form (V-te iru), the meaning of the time clause is "Since when..."

          彼は大学に入ってからずっと東京に住んでいる
          kare wa daigaku ni haitte kara zutto toukyou ni sunde iru
          Since when he entered in university, he live in Tokyo

          父はごはんを食べてから、ずっと畑にいます
          chichi wa gohan o tabete kara, zutto hatake ni imasu
          After lunch, my father is always in the field

          aida (ni) ---> 間(に)

          "aida" ends a time clause that mean "While..." or "Until..."
          It is often used when the subject of the subordinate is different from the subject of the principal.
          If the verb is an action verb, it must be used in V-te iru form and obviously it can't be in past form (actions in subordinate and principal clause happen at the sime time).

          おじいさんが寝ている間、静かにしなければならない
          ojii-san ga nete iru aida, shizuka ni shinakereba naranai
          While the grandfather sleeps, we must be quiet

          涼しい間に、出かけよう
          suzushii aida ni, dekakeyou
          While it's cool, let's go out
          With principal clause with verbs in past tense, it can be used for past events.

          先生がいない間に、黒板にいたずら書きをした
          sensei ga inai aida ni, kokuban ni itazura kaki o shita
          While the teacher wasn't there, i doodled on the blackboard

          The difference between "aida" and "aida ni" is important. With "aida" you mean "all the time" while "aida ni" is used in all other cases.
          Let's look to this example:

          客が来ている間、子供たちはうるさかった
          kyaku ga kite iru aida, kodomotachi wa urusukatta
          While the guest was here, the kids were noisy.

          ---> During all the time of the action of the subordinate (guest being there), the action of the principal (kodomotachi being noisy) happened

          客が来ている間に、電話がかかってきた
          kyaku ga kite iru aida ni, denwa ga kakatte kita
          While the guest was here, a phone call arrived

          ---> the action of the principal (phone call arrived) happened while the action of the subordinate (guest being there) was happening, but it didn't last for all the time, it was just a moment.

          B4 + uchi ni

          If you remember, "V-nai + uchi ni" means "Before an inconvenient happens.."
          When the verb is affermative, "uchi ni" has the exact same meaning of "aida ni"
          With action verb, the verb must be in V-te form just as "aida ni"

          父がいるうちにそれを話しておこう
          chichi ga iru uchi ni sore o hanashite okou
          While dad is here, let's talk to him about that

          元気なうちにしたいことをしたほうがいい
          genkina uchi ni shitai koto o shita houga ii
          Until you are in good health, you better do what do you want

          made

          Pay attention to the difference between "made" and "made ni"
          As we already saw, "made ni" means "Before..." while "made" means "Until..."

          母が帰ってくるまでいてください
          haha ga kaette kuru made ite kudasai
          Stay here until mom returns please

          私は彼が本当のことを言うまで待った
          watashi wa kare ga hontou no koto iu made matta
          I waited until he said the truth

          tabi ni / goto ni

          They mean "Every time that..."

          雨がふるたびに買い物に行かされた
          ame ga furu tabi ni kaimono ni ikasareta
          Everytimes it was raining, she sent me to do the shopping

          日曜日ごとに動物園へいく
          nichiyoubi goto ni doubutsuen e iku
          He goes to the zoo every sunday

          Note that even if it may be considered theoretically possible (since the action of the subordinate can happen before the action of the principal), "V-ta tabi ni/goto ni" is NOT used. · close

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          • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #38 - Time Clauses

            Posted on 9 September, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 268 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

            As promised, let's start talking about dependent clauses.
            Dependent clauses are just normal sentences that end with a particular word that help you to understand what kind of clause it is. Dependent clauses precede the principal clause.

            We'll start with time clauses.

            toki (ni) ---> 時(に)

            This is the base time clause "When......"
            Verb and adjectives are used in B4, nouns as "N no toki".

            新聞を読む時、めがねをかける
            shinbun o...

            Read more (819 words more)

            As promised, let's start talking about dependent clauses.
            Dependent clauses are just normal sentences that end with a particular word that help you to understand what kind of clause it is. Dependent clauses precede the principal clause.

            We'll start with time clauses.

            toki (ni) ---> 時(に)

            This is the base time clause "When......"
            Verb and adjectives are used in B4, nouns as "N no toki".

            新聞を読む時、めがねをかける
            shinbun o yomu toki, megane o kakeru
            When i read the newspaper, i put glasses on

            暑い時は、窓を開けましょう
            atsui toki wa, mado o akemashou
            When it's hot, let's open the windows

            真剣の時は、必ず早く起きる
            shinken no toki wa, kanarazu hayaku okiru
            when i have an exam, i always wake up early

            Time and politeness of the sentence is established by the verb of the principal clause. The verb in the time clause is in its base form and it hasn't temporal value. It simply means that the action in the time clause happens at the same time of the action in the principal clause.

            買い物に行く時、銀行に寄った
            kaimono ni iku toki, ginkou ni yotta
            When i went shopping, I dropped in the bank

            暇な時に、よくいっしょにつりに行った
            himana toki ni, yoku issho ni tsuri ni itta
            When we had free time, we often went to fish together

            The use of "toki" or "toki ni" is up to you, but the whole time clause can be the subject of the sentence.. in that case it will be ".... toki wa".

            It's possible, anyway, to have a past verb in the time clause with "toki".
            In this case it means that the action of the time clause happens BEFORE the action of the principal clause.
            Give a look to these examples:

            絵を書く時、彼は酒を飲みます
            e o kaku toki, kare wa sake o nomimasu
            When he paints, he drinks sake

            絵を書いた時、彼は酒を飲みます
            e o kaita toki, kare wa sake o nomimasu
            After he paints, he drinks sake

            The first sentence means that before painting or in the meanwhile, he drinks sake.
            The second sentence means that he paints first and THEN he drinks.

            Another example:

            日本へ行く時, 彼は薬をたくさん買った
            nihon e iku toki, kare wa kusuri o takusan katta
            When he went to Japan he bought many medicine

            日本へ行った時、彼は薬をたくさん買った
            nihon e itta toki, kare wa kusuri o takusan katta
            When he went to Japan he bought many medicine

            The 2 sentences can even be translated in the same way, but the meaning is different.
            With the first sentence you mean that he bought medicine before going to Japan.
            With the second, instead, the action "went to Japan" happens before "bought medicine".. so you mean that he bought medicine in Japan and not before the departure.

            to

            We already saw "to" used in "If clauses", but you can't make confusion.
            When the tense of the verb of the principal is at present, "to" ends an "if clause".
            When the tense of the verb of the principal is at past, "to" ends a time clause.

            "to" may be used to express:

            - 2 consecutive actions of the same person with the meaning of "As soon as.... , he..."

            彼は家に帰るとすぐふろに入った
            kare wa ie ni kaeru to sugu huro ni haitta
            As soon as he was back home, he took a bath

            - "When he did..., he noticed that.."

            よく見ると、その男は顔にきずあとがあった
            yoku miru to, sono otoko wa kao ni kizuato ga atta
            When i looked closely, I noticed that the man had a scar on the face

            ドアを開けると、社長がいた
            doa o akeru to, shachou ga ita
            When i opened the door, I realized he was the president

            mae (ni) ---> 前(に)

            "mae" ends time clauses that mean "Before.."
            The verb in this time clause can only be at PRESENT tense and AFFERMATIVE. And it can't be a stative verb.
            It can't be used with adjectives (only as "adjective ni naru/suru)
            While nouns are used as "N no mae (ni)"

            泳ぐ前に、体操をしなさい
            oyogu mae ni, taisou o shinasai
            Before swimming, do some exercise

            雨が降る前に、出かけたほうがいい
            ame ga furu mae ni, dekaketa hou ga ii
            Before it rains, it's better to leave

            寒くになる前に、ジャケットを買っておこう
            samuku ni naru mae ni, jaketto o katte okou
            Before it becomes cold, I'll buy a jacket

            The difference between "mae ni" and "mae" alone is that the first adresses to a specific moment while the second is more indefinite.

            Other ways to say "Before..."

            V-nai uchi ni

            It means "Before an inconvenience happens..."

            雨が降らないうちに、帰ったほうがいいですよ
            ame ga furanai uchi ni, kaetta houga ii desu yo
            Before it rain, It's better if you go back home

            叱られないうちに, 先生にあゆまろう
            shikararenai uchi ni, sensei ni ayumarou
            Before being scolded, let's apologize to the teacher

            Even if the verb of the time clause is negative, the meaning is affermative.

            made ni

            It means "Before...." and it put emphasis on the deadline.

            客たち来るまでに、掃除をしょう
            kyakutachi kuru made ni, souji o shou
            Before the guests come, let's clean

            橋が落ちるまでに、知らせなければならない
            hashi ga ochiru made ni, shirasenakereba naranai
            They must be informed before the bridge falls.

            In the next lesson the remanining time clauses ^^ · close

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            • Let's learn Japanese Together - Lesson #37 - Like/Dislike

              Posted on 6 September, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 428 views · 1 comments · 1 likes

              This will be a simple lesson ^^ And it will be the last one before we'll finally start talking about dependent clause.. yeah! Our sentences will become a bit more complicated ^^

              Sukina - Kiraina

              In japanese, you can use these 2 Na-adjectives to tell what you like and what you dislike. They can also be used to express "love" and "hate".

              Since they are Na-adjectives, you should not have problem using them ^^

              X wa N ga suki da/desu ---> X likes...

              Read more (346 words more)

              This will be a simple lesson ^^ And it will be the last one before we'll finally start talking about dependent clause.. yeah! Our sentences will become a bit more complicated ^^

              Sukina - Kiraina

              In japanese, you can use these 2 Na-adjectives to tell what you like and what you dislike. They can also be used to express "love" and "hate".

              Since they are Na-adjectives, you should not have problem using them ^^

              X wa N ga suki da/desu ---> X likes N
              X wa N ga kirai da/desu ---> X dislikes N

              私は魚が好きだ
              watashi wa sakana ga suki da
              I like fish

              彼女はフットサルが嫌いです
              kanojo wa futtosaru ga kirai desu
              She dislike football

              When in a sentence you say "X likes A but doesn't like B", the particle "wa" substitute the particle "ga"

              母はコーヒーは好きですが紅茶はではありません
              haha wa koohii wa suki desu ga koucha wa suki dewa arimasen
              My mother likes coffe but she doesn't like tea

              Note that "ga" here is not a particle but an adversative conjunction.

              Like any other adjective, sukina and kiraina can be used in attributive form.

              彼が好きな歌はこれです
              kare ga sukina uta wa kore desu
              The song he likes is this

              あなたが嫌いな飲み物はどれですか
              anata ga kiraina nomimono wa dore desuka
              Which is the drink you don't like?

              When you want to say "I like/dislike to do something", you have to nominalize the verb using "koto" o "no"

              私はピアノをひくことが好きです
              watashi wa piano o hiku koto ga suki desu
              I like to play the piano

              彼女は歌うのはすきだが踊るのは嫌いだ
              kanojo wa utau no wa suki da ga odoru no wa kirai da
              She likes to sing but she dislike to dance

              When you want to say that you like/dislike something more than something else you have to use the comparative structure

              彼女は踊ることより歌うことのほうがすきだ
              kanojo wa odoru koto yori utau koto no hou ga suki da
              She likes to sing more than dancing

              Remember that sukina and kiraida express a long lasting feeling and NOT momentary.
              So if, at the end of a movie, you want to ask "Did you like the movie?" you can't say "eiga ga suki deshitaka"
              cause this sentence mean "have you liked the movie time ago? (cause now you don't like it anymore)"

              You can say:
              eiga wa yokatta desuka
              eiga wa omoshirokatta desuka
              eiga ga ki ni irimashitaka [the structure is "X wa N ga ki ni iru] · close

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              • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #36 - Give and Recieve

                Posted on 31 August, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 94 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

                Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

                To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

                ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

                UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
                SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar pe...

                Read more (1019 words more)

                Japanese language has a complicated way to express the verbs "to give" and "to recieve". It's complicated cause there are more than 1 verbs to use and cause everything depends on the social relation between the person who gives and the person who recieve.

                To make it simple, the society is view by every person in this way

                ME-------------------- UCHI--------------------------SOTO

                UCHI is a group composed by relatives and friends
                SOTO is a group composed by unfamiliar person and people considered socially superior

                Depending on the direction of the "give" and "recieve" you'll have to use different verbs

                To give

                In japanese there are 3 verbs that mean "to give": AGERU - KURERU - YARU

                Ageru

                This verb is used when the direction of "give" is toward right:

                ME gives to Uchi and Soto
                Uchi gives to Uchi and Soto
                Soto gives to Soto

                The structure is simple:

                X wa Y ni N o ageru

                X is the person who gives
                Y is the person who recieves
                N is the thing given

                So the meaning is simply: "X gives N to Y"

                私は父にネクタイをあげよう
                watashi wa chichi ni nekutai o ageyou
                I'll give a necktie to my father

                父は隣の人に松をあげた
                chichi wa tonari no hito ni matsu o ageta
                My father gave a pine to the neighbour

                田中さんは山田さんに切手をあげた
                tanaka-san wa yamada-san ni kitte o ageta
                Tanaka gave a stamp to Yamada

                "ageru" has a humble form "sashiageru". This is part of the so called "keigo" that is the japanese honorific way of talking. When you talk with a person that is considered superior, you have to use keigo to show him respect.
                "sashiageru" is used when the person who recieve is superior to the person who gives.

                弟は先生に絵をさしあげました
                otouto wa sensei ni e o sashiagemashita
                My younger brother gave a draw to the teacher

                Kureru

                Kureru is used when the direction of giving goes toward left:

                Soto gives to Uchi or Me
                Uchi gives to Me

                As you may notice, when the 2 persons are part of the same group "ageru" is used.

                The structure is the same:

                X wa Y ni N o kureru

                小島さん妹に劇の切符をくれた
                kojima-san imouto ni geki no kippu o kureta
                Mr.Kojima gave a ticket for the theater to my younger sister

                妹はその切符を私にくれた
                imouto wa sono kippu o watashi ni kureta
                My younger sister gave that ticket to me

                Also "kureru" has its humble form "kudasaru".
                Pay attention: "kudasaru" is used when the person who GIVES is superior to the the person who recieve.

                先生は子供におもちゃをくださった
                sensei wa kodomo ni omocha kudasatta
                The teacher gave a toy to my son

                Yaru

                Yaru is used only when:

                -the person who recieves is clearly inferior
                -the person who recieves is an animal
                -among male friends

                妹にスカートをやる
                imouto ni sukaato o yaru
                I'll give a skirt to my younger sister

                This is just a little different from "imouto ni sukaato o ageru". It implies that "the younger sister" is "inferior".

                お母さん、ねこにごはんをやってね
                okaasan, neko ni gohan o yatte ne
                Mom, feed the cat ok? (lit. give the food to the cat)

                僕は井上にあの本をやった
                boku wa inoue ni ano hon o yatta
                I gave that book to Inoue

                To recieve

                There is only one verb that means "to recieve": "morau"

                Morau

                The direction of recieving goes toward left:

                Me recieves from Uchi or Soto
                Uchi recieves from Uchi or Soto
                Soto recieves from Soto

                If Soto or Uchi recieve something from Me, you can't use "morau" but you have to invert the sentence and use ageru.

                The structure is:

                Y wa N ni/kara N o morau

                Y is the person who recieve
                X is the person who gives
                N is the things recieved

                The meaning is simply: "Y recieve N from X"

                Obviously, it's just the opposite of ageru/kureru/yaru

                弟は父からおもちゃをもらった
                otouto wa chichi kara omocha o moratta
                My younger brother recieved a toy from dad

                まりこさんはみずきさんに本をもらったそうだ
                mariko-san wa mizuki-san ni hon o moratta souda
                It seems that Mariko recieved a book from Mizuki

                If "X" is an organization like a "company" or "school", you can use only "kara" and not "ni"

                会社から野球の切符をもらった
                kaisha kara yakyuu no kippu o moratta
                I recieved a ticket for baseball from the company

                Also "morau" has a humble form "itadaku".
                It's used when who recieves is inferior.

                部長から写真をいただきました
                buchou kara shashin o itadakimashita
                I recieved a photo from the boss

                V-te Ageru/Kureru/Yaru/Morau

                The same system of giving and recieving is used when someone do something from someone else and viceversa.
                In fact, ageru, kureru, yaru and morau haven't only the material meaning of £give" and "recieve" and when they are used with "V-te" they mean "to do something for someone"

                "Y" used in the previous examples is the person who takes advantage from the action done by "X"

                母は着物をもってくれました
                haha wa kimono o motte kuremashita
                My mother made a kimono for me

                その仕事を手伝ってあげましょうか
                sono shigoto o tetsudatte agemashou ka
                Do you want that i help you with that work?

                when X and Y are "watashi" and "anata" they are often omitted cause it's clear from the context.

                店員はプレゼントをきれいに包んでくれた
                ten'in wa purezento o kirei ni tsutsunde kureta
                The clerk wrapped the present in a nice way (for me)

                ねこの背中を撫でてやりました
                neko no senaka o nadete yarimashita
                I patted on the cat's back

                きのう先生から彼に離したいただいた
                kinou sensei kara kare ni hanashite itadaita
                Yesterday, the teacher talked to him (for me)

                The last sentence shows how it's not that easy to use this kind of sentences.
                In english the subject is "teacher" cause "teacher" is the one who "talk to him".
                But using "V-te morau" you want to point out that the teacher is doing you a favour or you would have simply said "sensei wa kare ni hanashimashita".
                While with the sentence you are saying:
                sensei kara [..] itadaita ---> I received (a favour) from the teacher
                which favour?
                kare ni hanashite --> to talk to him · close

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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #35 - If clauses (part 2)

                  Posted on 26 August, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 107 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                  So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
                  We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

                  V-tara

                  V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
                  With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
                  With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

                  V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followe...

                  Read more (1033 words more)

                  So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
                  We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

                  V-tara

                  V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
                  With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
                  With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

                  V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followed by an apodosis expressing an opinion, advice, request, volitive or a guess.
                  But it hasn't the same meaning of "nara".
                  In fact, V-tara has the meaning of "when..." and not only "if..". Obviously, the clause with "when" express a condition that has to happen before the action in the principal clause.

                  大阪に着いたら手紙を書いてください
                  oosaka ni tsuitara tegami o kaite kudasai
                  When you arrive in Osaka, write me a letter please

                  車が治ったら山に行こう
                  kuruma ga naottara yama ni ikou
                  when (if) the car will be repaired, we'll go to the mountain

                  It also have the meaning of "If, by chance, it happens that.."

                  彼に見られたら恥ずかしい
                  kare ni miraretara hazukashii
                  It's emberrassing to be seen with him (If it happens that i'm seen with him, it's embarrassing)

                  時間があったら映画を見に行こう
                  jikan ga attara eiga o mi ni ikou
                  If there is time, let's go to see a movie

                  寒かったら大変だ
                  samukattara taihen da
                  If it's cold, it's troublesome

                  私だったらそんなこはしない
                  watashi dattara sonna koto wa shinai
                  If it was me, i wouldn't do it

                  Differences between V-ba, nara and V-tara

                  Before talking about "to" that has it's particular use.. let's see the differences between these 3 ways to express a conditional period since they are similar.

                  Temporal relation between protasis (P) and apodosis (A)

                  Let's see this 3 sentences:

                  ---------P----------------------------------A----------
                  1)nihon e ikeba--------------sushi ga taberareru
                  2)nihon e iku nara-----------sushi ga taberareru
                  3)nihon e ittara--------------sushi ga taberareru

                  Only V-tara tell that (P) happens before (A), so sentence 3 is "When you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi" "Once you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi"
                  In sentence 1 and 2 (P) may happens both before or after (A).. so the translation is more hypothetical "If you go to Japan, you can eat sushi"
                  The only difference is that with V-ba, (P) usually happens before (A), while with "nara" it may be both.
                  Let's see other 3 examples to explain it:

                  -----------P----------------------------------A---------
                  1)nihon e ikeba-------------nihongo ga benkyou dekiru
                  2)nihon e iku nara----------nihongo o oshiete ageyou
                  3)nihon e ittara-------------nihongo o oshiete morainasai

                  Again, in sentence 3 (P) happens before (A) "Since you have been in Japan, teach me japanese"
                  In sentence 1, (P) happens before (A) "If you go to Japan, you can study Japanese" (there, in Japan)
                  In sentence 2, (P) may happens both before or after (A) "If/When you go to Japan, teach me japanese". The sentence is good both if you ask to be teached japanese before he goes to Japan or once he is in Japan.
                  Anyway, talking about temporal relation, you can consider V-ba and "nara" as almost the same thing.

                  General condition vs Specific condition

                  V-ba is used for general condition that has a consequence that usually happens. "If you... it always happens that.."
                  While nara and V-tara are used for specific condition, single events. "When you... it happened that..."

                  suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuku --> If you switch on, the radio turns on (normal event, it always happens)
                  suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuita --> Every time i switched on, the radio turned on
                  suicchi o hinettara rajio ga tsuita --> When i switched on, the radio turned on (you are describing the single event)

                  Restriction depending of the kind of sentence in the apodosis

                  V-ba is the one that expresses objectivity the most, so is usually not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a request, volitive, exhortative, imperative, a guess or prohibition.
                  In that case use nara or V-tara.

                  to

                  "to" is used for natural events that happen regularly, habits, math and scientific rules, so the apodosis always expresses a natural and logic consequence.

                  春になると花が咲きます
                  haru ni naru to hana ga sakimasu
                  When spring comes, flowers bloom

                  3に2を足すと5になる
                  3 ni 2 o tasu to 5 ni naru
                  If you add 2 to 3, it becomes 5 (or simply 3+2=5 :D)

                  雨が降るとここはよく洪水になる
                  ame ga furu to koko wa yoku kouzui ni naru
                  When it rains, this place is often flooded

                  私が行くといつも彼女はケーキを作れる
                  watashi ga iku to itsumo kanojo wa keeki o tsukureru
                  When i go, she always make me a cake

                  Just as V-ba, "to" is not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a guess, request, volitive etc...

                  haru ni naru to hana o uemasu --> when spring comes flowers are planted
                  haru ni naru uemashou---> is WRONG!

                  To say "when spring comes, let's plant flowers", you have to use nara or V-tara. In this case V-tara is probably better.
                  haru ni nattara uemashou --> When spring will arrive, let's plant flowers

                  Real hypothesis

                  When the condition is no more than a simple hypothesis, V-ba, nara, V-tara and to are used with hypothetical adverbs "moshi" or "mangaichi". In this case they must always be translated with "If.."

                  もし彼が家にいれば会えます
                  moshi kare ga ie ni ireba aemasu
                  If he is at home, you can meet him

                  万が一彼が来なかったらどうしよう
                  mangaichi kare ga konakattara doushiyou
                  If by chance he doesn't come, what would i do?

                  もしインドにも行くならおみやげを買ってきてください
                  moshi indo ni mo iku nara omiyage o katte kite kudasai
                  If you go in India too, buy me a present please

                  万が一ガラスが割れるとけがをしますよ
                  mangaichi garasu ga wareru to kega o shimasu yo
                  If the glass breaks, you'll get injured
                  Unrealizable hypothesis

                  This is an hypothesis on an event that can't be realized, so the action in the apodosis won't happen. The apodosis often ends with "noni"

                  もっと安ければあのドレスを買うのに
                  motto yasukereba ano doresu o kau noni
                  If it was cheaper, I would buy that dress

                  But the hypothesis is not true, cause actually that dress is not cheaper, so you won't buy it

                  皆がよく働いたらもっと早く終わっただろうのに
                  mina ga yoku hataraitara motto hayaku owatta darou noni
                  If everyone had worked better, we would have probably finished earlier

                  あしたでないならその会に行けるのに
                  ashita de nai nara sono kai ni ikeru noni
                  If it wasn't tomorrow, i could go to the meeting · close

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                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #34 - If clauses

                    Posted on 23 August, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 171 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                    The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
                    Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

                    CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
                    If .......... + then.....

                    B5 + ba

                    This represents the conditional forms...

                    Read more (741 words more)

                    The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
                    Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

                    CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
                    If .......... + then.....

                    B5 + ba

                    This represents the conditional forms of verbs and adjectives. I will simply call it V-ba from now on.
                    The verbs in V-Ba is used in the protasis.

                    If the V-ba verb is an "action verb", you can't use volitive, exhortative, imperative, request, prohibition or advice in the apodosis.

                    この薬を飲めば、治りますよ
                    kono kusuri o nomeba naorimasu yo
                    If you take this medicine, you'll get well

                    この大学を出れば、いい会社に入れる
                    kono daigaku o dereba ii kaisha ni haireru
                    If i graduate from this university, I'll enter in a good company

                    With stative verbs or adjective there are no restriction for the verb of the apodosis

                    高くなければ会なさい
                    takakunakereba kai nasai
                    If it's not expensive, buy it

                    日本へ行きたければ日本語を習ったほうがいいですよ
                    nihon e ikitakereba nihongo o natta houga ii desu yo
                    If you want to go to Japan, you better learn japanese

                    B5+ba is the only form of V-ba, but even if V-ba hasn't a past form.. it can describe a past event if the verb of the apodosis is in past tense.
                    In this case it describe an HABITUAL action and NOT a single action (to describe a single action in a past conditional period you have to use "tara".. one of the other conditional forms)

                    あの人に頼めば必ず教えてくれた
                    ano hito ni tanomeba kanarazu oshiete kureta
                    If i asked that man, he always answered

                    Compare it with this sentence with "tara":

                    あの人に頼んだらすぐ教えてくれた
                    ano hito ni tanondara sugu oshiete kureta
                    WHEN i asked him, he immediately answered

                    Nara

                    Verbs (B4) + nara
                    I-Adjectives (B4) + nara
                    Na-Adjectives (root) + nara
                    Nouns + nara

                    When "nara" is used with a verb at present tense, it expresses a contitional clause on present or future event. This kind of protasis is usually followed by an apodosis that expresses a judgement, a guess, volitive or the opinion of the talker. It's rarely used with objective apodosis. You can consider "nara" complementary to V-ba in this case. When you can't use V-ba, you can use "nara".
                    The subject of the protasis is usually at 2nd or 3rd person.

                    あすいい天気なら行こう
                    asu ii tenki nara ikou
                    if tomorrow the weather is good, i'll go

                    いい天気ではないなら行くまい
                    ii tenki dewanai nara ikumai
                    If the weather is not good, i won't go

                    あなたが歌うなら私も歌います
                    anata ga utau nara watashi mo utaimasu
                    If you sing, I'll sing too

                    日本へ行くなら日本語を勉強しておきなさい
                    nihon e iku nara nihongo o benkyou shite okinasai
                    If you go to Japan, study japanese
                    Since you go to Japan, study japanese (first)

                    ケーキを作るなら私にも一切れください
                    keeki o tsukuru nara watashi ni mo ichi kire kudasai
                    If (Since) you make a cake, give a piece to me too

                    Used with verbs in past tense, it expresses a conditional clause on a past event that it's surely already happened. So it means "Since...., then.."

                    ローマへ行ったならバチカンへも行ったでしょう
                    rooma e itta nara bachikan e mo itta deshou
                    Since you have been in Rome, you probably visited Vatican too

                    彼に会ったならそのことを知っている
                    kare ni atta nara sono koto o shitte iru
                    Since you met him, you should know that thing

                    "nara" can be used in conditional period with apodosis that expresses an advice/opinion.
                    In this case the sentence is translated "If you want to.. then (i advice you to)..."

                    テレビを買うならあの店が安いですよ
                    terebi o kau nara ano mise ga yasui desu yo
                    If you want to buy a TV, that store has low prices (--> so i advice you to go there)

                    アメリカへ行くならぜひ ニューヨークへ行きなさい
                    amerika e iku nara zehi nyuuyouku e ikinasai
                    If you go to USA, you absolutely have to go to New York

                    As we saw before, nara doesn't express only hypothesis but also verified/already happened events. So it doesn't only mean "if.." but also "Since..".
                    Japanese has other expressions that can be used instead of "nara" when it means "Since.."

                    They are: to suruto, to shitara, to sureba, to naruto.

                    They are used at the end of the protasis with verbs in B3, and they are followed by the principal clauses

                    彼は来ないとすると奥さんも来ないだろう
                    kare wa konai to suruto okusan mo konai darou
                    Since he doesn't come, his wife won't probably come too

                    きのう彼は酒を飲みすぎたとなると今日頭がいたい
                    kinou kare wa sake o nomi sugita to naruto kyou atama ga itai
                    Since he drank too much yesterday, today he has headache

                    Next lesson: the other 2 conditional forms: "tara" and "to" · close

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                    • Let's Jap Together - Les. #33 - Guess/Uncert. - souda / kamo shirenai / hazu da

                      Posted on 21 August, 2011 (5 years ago) by DottDivine · 147 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                      After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

                      souda / soudesu

                      Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
                      Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

                      With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
                      But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
                      It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
                      Let's look at this example:

                      kono ringo wa oishi souda-...

                      Read more (778 words more)

                      After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

                      souda / soudesu

                      Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
                      Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

                      With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
                      But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
                      It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
                      Let's look at this example:

                      kono ringo wa oishi souda---> this apple looks delicious
                      kono ringo wa ama souda---> this apple looks sweet
                      kono ringo wa mazu souda---> this apple looks bad tasting
                      kono ringo wa furu souda---> this apple looks old

                      This sentence are all correct and they are made looking at the apple. The look of the apple makes the talker think that the apple may be "delicious" "sweet" "bad tasting" "old"

                      You can't use souda with adjectives like "akai" (red) "ookii" (big) "marui" (rounded).. cause you are looking at the apple, so you can tell if it's red, big or rounded... you are not guessing.

                      If it happens that you are far from the apple and you have to say "That apples seems red", you have to use youda or rashii --> "ano ringo wa akai youda"/"ano ringo wa akai rashii"

                      Souda can also be used to make a guess on a future events that it seems they are going to happen soon. Also this guess is based on ocular observation.

                      今にも雨が降りそうだ
                      ima ni mo ame ga furi souda
                      It looks like it's gonna rain soon

                      このバスは止まりそうです
                      kno basu wa tomari soudesu
                      It seems that this bus is going to stop

                      With potential verbs souda means "it looks like he can..." "it seems he can.."

                      この車はまだ使えそうだ
                      kono kuruma wa mada tsukae souda
                      It looks like this car can still be used

                      あの会社には入れそうではない
                      ano kaisha ni wa haire soudewanai
                      It seems i can't enter in that company

                      Souda can be used in an attributive form and an adverbial form.
                      The attributive form is "souna" while the adverbial is "souni"

                      彼は高そうな車を買った
                      kare wa taka souna kuruma o katta
                      he bought a car that looks expensive

                      彼はうれしそうに話した
                      kare wa ureshi souni hanashita
                      he spoke happily (he spoke in a way that looked happy)

                      Now compre these sentences:

                      ima ni mo ame ga furi souda --> It looks like is going to rain soon
                      ame ga futte iru youda --> It seems it's raining (told by someone in direct contact with the rain)
                      nihon de wa rokugatsu ni ame ga yoku furu youda (rashii) --> it seems that (i heard that) in japan it rains a lot on June
                      tabun ashita ame ga furu darou --> It will probably rain tomorrow (subjective guess)

                      kamo shirenai / kamo shiremasen

                      Verbs: B4 + kamo shirenai
                      I-Adjectives: B4 + kamo shirenai
                      Na-Adjectives: Root + kamo shirenai
                      Nouns: N + kamo shirenai

                      With kamo shirenai you make a guess that is the most unsure among all the way we have seen. Who talks is not sure at all of what he is saying.

                      私はいくかもしれないし行かないかもしれない
                      watashi wa iku kamo shirenai shi ikanai kamo shirenai
                      Maybe i'll go, maybe i won't go

                      彼は音楽家かもしれない
                      kare wa ongaguka kamo shirenai
                      He may be a musician (but i'm not sure)

                      Compare these sentences:

                      kare wa kunai kamo shirenai --> Perhaps he won't come (i'm not sure)
                      kare wa kunai darou --> He'll probably won't come
                      kare wa kunai rashii --> I heard he won't come
                      kare wa kunai youda --> It seems he won't come

                      hazu da/desu

                      Verbs: B4 + hazu da
                      Adjectives: B4 + hazu da
                      Nouns: N no hazu da

                      This form means "It's supposed to.."
                      In fact this is not normal guess, we are talking about something that we expect to happen or it should have already happened.

                      彼は三時に駅に着くはずだ
                      kare wa sanji ni eki ni tsuku hazu da
                      He is supposed to arrive at the station at 3 o'clock

                      授業はもう終わったはずだ
                      jugyou wa mou owatta hazu da
                      The lesson should have already finished

                      The negative form of "hazu da" is "hazu ga (wa) nai"and it means "It's not possible that.."

                      彼がそんなことを言うはずがない
                      kare wa sonna koto o iu hazu ga nai
                      It's not possible that he says something like that

                      -ni chigai nai / -ni kimatte iru

                      Even if this forms are still a guess, the talker is really sure of what he is saying. It means "No doubt that.." "It must..." "Surely..."

                      彼が選ばれるにちがいない
                      kare ga erabareru ni chigai nai
                      No doubt that he will be elected

                      そんなことをしたら先に叱られるにきまっている
                      sonna koto o shitara sensei ni shikarareru ni kimatte iru
                      If you do something like that, you'll surely be scolded by the teacher · close

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