You have turned off JavaScript in your browser.
Enable JavaScript in your browsers preferences to make use of all the advanced features of JpopAsia.com

DottDivine

With my nieceeeeee
dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 5 years ago. He owns like 1,213 Jpops and was last seen here about 14 minutes ago

  • Jpops
    1,213
  • Shares
    74
  • Friends
    56
  • Comments
    1,582
  • Forum posts
    9
  • Forum topics
    1
  • Profile views
    31,235
  • Wallposts
    1,164
  • Videos watched
    3,411
  • Added albums
    4
  • Added tracks
    24
  • Added videos
    6
  • Added lyrics
    104
  • True fanned
    4

Journals

  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #31 - Guess/Uncertainty - darou/deshou

    Posted on 15 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 75 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

    In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
    The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

    Darou / Deshou

    This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
    The...

    Read more (673 words more)

    In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
    The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

    Darou / Deshou

    This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
    The meaning is "I think that.." "Maybe..." "Perhaps.." "It may/might..."
    The structure is simple, you just have to add darou/deshou at the end of a sentence and they'll transform the affermative sentence into a guess.

    Verbs: B3 + darou/deshou
    I-Adj: B3 + darou/deshou
    Na-Adj: root + darou/deshou
    N: N + darou/deshou

    おそらく彼は今晩行くだろう
    osoraku kare wa konban iku darou
    He'll probably go tonight

    たぶん田中さんは映画に行かないだろう
    tabun tanaka-san wa eiga ni ikanai darou
    I think Tanaka-san doesn't go to the movies

    あの建物はたぶん学校だろう
    ano tatemono wa tabun gakkou darou
    That building is probably a school

    --The guess can also be done on past events:

    母はもう東京についたでしょう
    haha wa mou toukyou ni tsuita deshou
    I think my mother is already arrived in Tokyo

    --The guessing can be made involving the interlocutor using final particles as "ka" "ne" "yo" and "sa"
    With "ka" we make a guess asking for an aswer from the interlocutor
    With "ne" we make a guess asking for a confirmation from the interlocutor
    With "yo" and "sa" we are expressing the fact that even if it's a guessing we are confident on what we are saying.

    kare wa konban kuru deshou ka---> maybe he'll come tonight?
    kare wa konban kuru deshou ne---> maybe he'll come tonight, isn't it?
    kare wa konban kuru darou yo---> I'm quite sure he'll come tonight

    When the guessing is expressed in interrogative form, darou/deshou are used instead of the other way to express uncertainty. The guessing can be direct to an interlocutor or also to yourself.

    彼はまだあそこに住んでいるでしょうか
    kare wa mada asoko ni sunde iru deshou ka
    Do you know if he still live there?

    あしたも雪だろうか
    ashita mo yuki darou ka
    I wonder if it'll snow tomorrow too

    --When the guessing is made by a third person you have to use -to omotte iru (without darou/deshou)

    彼は私が頭がいいと思っている
    kare wa watashi ga atama ga ii to omotte iru
    He thinks I'm smart

    When the guessing was made in the past you have to use -to omotta

    私は彼がもう帰ってこたいだろうと思った
    watashi wa kare ga mou kaette konai darou to omotta
    I thought that he would have never come back

    --darou/deshou can be used in a conversation when who talks asks for a confirmation directly to the interlocutor with the meaning of "isn't it?"

    君はその本を彼にもう返しただろう
    kimi wa sono hon wo kare ni mou kaeshita darou
    You have probably already returned that book, isn't it?

    ほら、このセーターいいでしょう
    hora, kono seetaa ii deshou
    look, this sweater is nice, isn't it?

    --this structure has also an honorary form:

    Verbs: B2+ mashou/masudeshou
    Na-Adj: root + de arimashou
    N: N + de gozaimashou

    便利だから学生に喜ばれましょう
    benri da kare gakusei ni yorokobaremashou
    Since it's useful, it will probably be appreciated by the students

    たくさんのお金が必要でありましょう
    takusan no okane ga hitsuyou de arimashou
    A lot of money will probably be necessary [必要な-->hitsuyouna-->necessary]

    Literary expressions

    V-Godan: B1a + u
    Other verbs: B1 + you
    I-Adj: B1(-karo) + u
    Na-Adj: root + dearou
    N: N + dearou

    Negative: B3 + mai
    Emphatic Negative: B2 + wa shimai

    大臣は辞任するこのになろう
    daijin wa jinin suru koto ni narou
    I think the minister will resign [大臣-->daijin-->minister 辞任する-->jinin suru--> to resign]

    これは多くの反論が出てこよう
    kore wa ooku no hanron ga dete koyou
    About that, many opinion will probably come out [出て来る-->dete kuru-->To come out]

    コートがなければさぞ寒かろう
    kooto ga nakereba sazo samukarou
    If he doesn't have the coat, i'm sure he'll be cold [さぞ-->sazo-->surely]

    すぐにその問題を解決することが必要であろう
    sugu ni sono mondai o kaiketsu suru koto ga hitsuyou dearou
    It will probably be necessary to solve this problem immediately

    ドルはもうこれ以上下がるまい
    doru wa mou kore ijou sagarumai
    I don't think the dollar will go down anymore
    · close

    like  
      Comment
    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #30 - Causative

      Posted on 6 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 124 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

      Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

      E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

      V-Saseru

      V. Godan: B1+seru
      V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
      kuru: kosaseru
      suru: saseru

      Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

      kaku--->kakaseru
      iu--->iwaseru
      hanasu--->hanasaseru
      yomu--->yomaseru
      oyogu--->oyogaseru

      deru--->desaseru
      okiru--->okisaseru

      Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

      yomu-->...

      Read more (944 words more)

      Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

      E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

      V-Saseru

      V. Godan: B1+seru
      V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
      kuru: kosaseru
      suru: saseru

      Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

      kaku--->kakaseru
      iu--->iwaseru
      hanasu--->hanasaseru
      yomu--->yomaseru
      oyogu--->oyogaseru

      deru--->desaseru
      okiru--->okisaseru

      Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

      yomu-->read
      yomaseru--> make (someone) read
      yomasemasu--> make (someone) read (polite)
      yomasenai--> don't make (someone) read
      yomasemasen--> don't make (someone) read (polite)
      yomaseta--> made (someone) read
      yomasemashita--> made (someone) read (polite)
      yomasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) read
      yomasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) read
      yomasete--> -te form

      taberu--> eat
      tabesaseru--> make (someone) eat
      tabesasemasu--> make (someone) eat (polite)
      tabesasenai--> don't make (someone) eat
      tabesasemasen--> don't make (someone) eat (polite)
      tabesaseta--> made (someone) eat
      tabesasemashita--> made (someone) eat (polite)
      tabesasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) eat
      tabesasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) eat (polite)
      tabesasete--> -te form

      X wa Y ni N o V-Saseru ---> X make Y do N

      This is the structure of the causative sentence with transitive verbs

      母は妹に皿を洗わせた
      haha wa imouto ni sara o arawaseta
      My mother made my younger sister wash the dishes [皿-->sara-->dishes 洗う-->arau-->to wash]

      彼女に田中さんを飛行場まで送らせよう
      kanojo ni tanaka san o hikoujou made okuraseyou
      I'll make her accompany tanaka-san till the airport [飛行場-->hikoujou-->airport 送る-->okuru-->to send]

      The more complicated the sentence becomes, the most difficult is to make a literal translation. The translation of the last sentence in fact it's not. Sometime, you only have to understand the meaning and translate accordingly.

      X wa Y ni/o V-Saseru

      This is the structure of the causative sentence with intransitive verbs

      社長は彼に/をイタリアへ行かせた
      shachou wa kare ni/o itaria e ikaseta
      The president made him go to Italy

      どうして子供に/をプルで泳がせないのですか
      doushite kodomo ni/o puru de oyogasenai no desuka
      Why don't you make the kids swim in the pool?

      The japanese causative express the idea of "make someone do", "push someone to do" but also the idea of "allow someone to do" "leave someone to do"

      When it has the first meaning, it's like someone force someone else to do something. That's why is possibile, when "X" get an advantange by making "Y" doing something, to use the weakened form "-te morau"
      "Morau" means "to recieve" but as i already said, in japanese "give/receive" are quite complicate... and we'll see them later.. for the moment just remember this option and look at this example:

      私は田中さんに手紙を読ませた
      watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yomaseta
      I made tanaka read the letter

      私は田中さんに手紙を読んでもらった
      watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yonde moratta
      I asked tanaka to read the letter for me

      The second one is way more kind.

      In the next sentences the causative has the second meaning:

      もうおとななのだから、好きなようにさせましょう
      mou otona nano dakara, sukina youni sasemashou
      Since he is an adult already, let's leave him do what he likes

      Translating the causative as "make him do what he likes" is a contradiction.. so it's better "leave him do".. cause this is the true meaning.

      子供をここで遊ばせないでください
      kodomo o koko de asobasenaide kudasai
      Please, don't leave the kids play here

      In this sentence, "don't make the children play here" would be still acceptable, but you understand that it's not that you "push" the kids to play there.. it's more like you "leave" the kids play there.

      How to pick "ni" or "o"

      - If there is another complement marked with "ni" use "o" and viceversa
      - If Y is inanimate use "o"
      mizu o koraseru (make the water freeze)
      - If the verbs express a psycological reaction use "o"
      sensei o komaraseru (make the sensei embarassed)
      gakusei o warawaseru (make the students laugh)

      Intransitive verbs that have a transitive version

      Do you remember those intransitive verbs that also have a corresponding transitive version? no? I talked about them in lesson #16 ^^
      Well, for those verbs, the causative form of the intransitive verbs has similar meaning of the transitive verb. So the transitive verb is generally used.

      neru-->to sleep
      nekasu--> to put to sleep

      kodomo ga neru ---> the kid sleeps
      kodomo o neraseru ---> I make the kid sleep (causative of neru)
      kodomo o nekasu ---> I put the kid to sleep

      noru--> to get on
      noseru--> to make someone get on

      haha ga kisha ni noru ---> my mother get on the train
      haha o kisha ni noraseru --->I make my mother get on the train (causative of noru)
      haha o kisha ni noseru ---> I make my mother get on the train

      In both cases, the last sentence is used, even if the meaning may be slightly different

      V-sasu

      This is another way to make a verb causative. But this is used only in oral japanese, it's considered really colloquial.

      V. Godan: B1+su
      V. Ichidan: B1+sasu
      kuru: kosasu
      suru: sasu

      Some examples:

      kaku--->kakasu
      iu--->iwasu
      hanasu--->hanasasu
      yomu--->yomasu
      oyogu--->oyogasu

      deru--->desasu
      okiru--->okisasu

      This causative form is conjugated like a godan verb endin in -su.
      I don't conjugate it right now cause the lesson is already sooo long :D

      All what i said for V-saseru is still valid for V-sasu too.. so i just make a pair of examples.

      彼に本当のことを言わしましょう
      kare ni hontou no koto o iwashimashou
      Lets make him tell the truth

      彼にこれを作らしてください
      kare ni kore o tsukurashite kudasai
      Make him do this please

      · close

      like  
        Comment
      • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #29 - Passive

        Posted on 4 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 72 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

        Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

        V-rareru

        V. Godan: B1+reru
        V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
        kuru: korareru
        suru: sareru

        No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
        Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
        This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

        Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

        kaku--->kakar...

        Read more (1167 words more)

        Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

        V-rareru

        V. Godan: B1+reru
        V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
        kuru: korareru
        suru: sareru

        No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
        Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
        This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

        Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

        kaku--->kakareru
        iu--->iwareru
        yomu--->yomareru
        kiru(to cut)--->kirareru
        katsu--->katareru

        taberu--->taberareru
        kiru(to wear)--->kirareru

        As the potential form, also the passive form of the verb can be conjugated like a normal ichidan verb in -eru.

        yomu--> read
        yomareru--> is read
        yomaremasu--> is read (polite)
        yomarenai--> isn't read
        yomaremasen--> isn't read (polite)
        yomareta--> was read
        yomaremashita--> was read (polite)
        yomarenakatta--> wasn't read
        yomaremasen deshita--> wasn't read (polite)
        yomarete--> -te form

        suteru--> throw
        suterareru--> is thrown
        suteraremasu--> is thrown (polite)
        suterarenai--> isn't thrown
        suteraremasen--> isn't thrown (polite)
        suterareta--> was thrown
        suteraremashita--> was thrown (polite)
        suterarenakatta--> wasn't thrown
        suteraremasen deshita--> wasn't thrown (polite)
        suterarete--> -te form

        X wa Y ni/ni yotte/kara V-rareru

        This is the structure of the passive sentence.
        X is who is subjected to the action
        Y is the agent complement who does the action

        Active sentence:
        父は兄を殴った
        chichi wa ani o nagutta
        My father beat my older brother (兄-->ani-->older brother 殴る-->naguru-->to beat]

        Passive sentence:
        兄は父に殴られた
        ani wa chichi ni nagurareta
        My older brother was beaten by my father

        山田さんの財布はすりに盗まれた
        yamada-san no saifu wa suri ni nusumareta
        Yamada's wallet was robbed by a pickpocket [財布-->saifu-->wallet すり-->suri-->pickpocket 盗む-->nusumu-->to steal]

        そんなことをすると先生に叱られますよ
        sonna koto o suru to sensei ni shikararemasu yo
        If you do something like that, you'll be scolded by the teacher [叱る-->shikaru-->to scold]

        when to use "ni", "ni yotte" or "kara" to mark the agent complement

        Usually "ni" is used, but there are sentences where is better to use the others.

        If Y is a PERSON:

        -Usually---> "ni"
        -With "directional" verbs you can use "kara" but also "ni". With "directional" verbs I mean those verbs who express the movement in some way.. like.. "send" or "give (a present)"
        -If there is another complement marked with "ni" in the sentence, use "ni yotte" or "kara"

        この指輪は彼から私に送られた
        kono yubiwa wa kare kara watashi ni okurareta
        This ring has been given to me by him [指輪-->yubiwa-->ring 送る-->okuru-->to give]

        これは八月に彼の妻によって書かれた
        kore wa hachigatsu ni kare no tsuma ni yotte kakareta
        This has been written by his wife on August [八月-->hachigatsu-->August 妻-->tsuma-->wife

        If Y is an OBJECT:

        -if the object is concrete --->"ni"
        -if the object is abstract ---> "ni yotte"

        私のねこは車にひかれた
        watashi no neko wa kuruma ni hikareta
        My cat has been run over by a car

        彼は信仰によって救われた
        kare wa shinkou ni yotte sukuwareta
        He was saved by faith [信仰-->shinkou-->faith 救う-->sukuu-->to save]

        When the agent is clear due to the context, the active sentence is usually used instead of the passive one. Especially if the direct object of the active sentence (that would be the subject of the passive sentence) is an inanimate things and so unable to execute an action.
        But with historical, objective, economic or social facts/events the passive sentence is used without any problem

        英語は多くの国で勉強されています
        eigo wa ooku no kuni de benkyou sarete imasu
        English is being studied in many countries [多く-->ooku-->many 国-->kuni-->country]

        この曲はショペンによって作られました
        kono kyoku wa shopen ni yotte tsukuraremashita
        This music has been composed by Chopin [曲-->kyoku-->music/song]

        *If "Y" is the author, than you have to use "ni yotte"

        Passive to express harm, bother and annoyance

        The japanese passive sentence can also be used to express a meaning of harm, bother or annoyance caused to the subject by the agent of the passive sentence. In this case, the passive sentence can also be used with intransitive verbs.
        That's why it's really difficult to explain the meaning since there is nothing similar in english.. so there isn't a direct translation either..
        Let's see few examples:

        Active:
        ame ga futta----> It rained
        Passive:
        kare wa ame ni furareta----> It rained (and he was annoyed by it)

        Since "to rain" is an intransitive verb, the second passive sentence is impossibile to translate in english.. in this case you can translate it as if it was an active sentence, pointing out that the subject (in this case "he") was annoyed by that.

        Active:
        otto ga shinda----> My husband died
        Passive:
        otto ni shinareta----> My husband died (It's so terrible)

        Again, it's difficult to give a translation to the passive sentence. The meaning is that I was harmed by the death of my husband, I'm not only telling a fact.

        Active:
        iyana kyaku ga kita----> An unwelcome guest came
        Passive:
        iyana kyaku ni korareta----> It happened to me that an unwelcome guest came (and it sucks)

        Active:
        chichi wa boku no kanojo kara no tegami o yonda ----> My father read the letter from my girlfriend
        Passive:
        boku no kanojo kara no tegami wa chichi ni yomareta ----> The letter from my girlfriend was read by my dad
        Passive of harm/bother/annoyance:
        boku wa chichi ni kanojo kara no tegami o yomareta ---> It sucks that my father read the letter from my girlfriend

        Probably this last example is the one that can help you understanding the most since it's done with a transitive verb.. and you may see the real difference between a normal passive sentence and a this passive sentence of harm/bother/annoyance.
        The topic of the sentence becomes the one who is annoyed by what happened.. even if he isn't who is directly subjected to the action.

        "Jihatsu" expressions

        Japanese has a group of expressions called "jihatsu" (naturalness).
        These expressions are used for events, feelings or action that happens against or without human will. They are used for things that can't be controlled by men.

        X wa (N ga) V-rareru

        This structure is used with "sentimental" verbs:
        kanjiru (to feel/to sense/to notice)
        shinobu (to remember with nostalgia)
        anzuru (to be worried/concerned)
        shinpai suru (to be worried/concerned)
        odoruku (to be surprised)

        or with "thinking" verbs:
        kangaeru (to think)
        omou (to think)
        omoidasu (to remember)

        X is the person who feels/thinks
        N is what makes X feels/thinks

        母の健康が心配される
        haha no kenkou ga shinpai sareru
        I'm concerned about my mother's health

        最近、彼が冷たく感じられる
        saikin, kare ga tsumetaku kanjirareru
        Recently, I feel he is cold
        · close

          Comment
        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #28 - Potential Forms - V-eru

          Posted on 1 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 227 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

          In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
          Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

          V-eru

          V. Godan: B5-ru
          V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
          kuru: korareru
          suru: dekiru

          An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

          Some examples:

          kaku--->kakeru
          iu--->ieru
          hanasu--->hanaseru
          tobu--->toberu
          yomu--->yomeru
          oyogu--...

          Read more (315 words more)

          In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
          Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

          V-eru

          V. Godan: B5-ru
          V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
          kuru: korareru
          suru: dekiru

          An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

          Some examples:

          kaku--->kakeru
          iu--->ieru
          hanasu--->hanaseru
          tobu--->toberu
          yomu--->yomeru
          oyogu--->oyogeru

          deru--->derareru
          okiru--->okirareru

          You can conjugate the potential form of the verb. To do it, consider it just like a normal Ichidan verb in -eru

          kaku--> write
          kakeru--> can write
          kakemasu--> can write (polite)
          kakenai--> can't write
          kakemasen--> can't write (polite)
          kaketa--> could write
          kakemashita--> could write (polite)
          kakenakatta--> couldn't write
          kakemasen deshita--> couldn't write (polite)
          kekete--> -te potential form

          It's like you attach the various auxiliary verbs to the B5 of the godan verbs instead the normal conjugated base they need

          deru--> exit
          derareru--> can exit
          deraremasu--> can exit (polite)
          derarenai--> can't exit
          deraremasen--> can't exit (polite)
          derareta--> could exit
          deraremashita--> could exit (polite)
          derarenakatta--> couldn't exit
          deraremasen deshita--> couldn't exit (polite)
          derarete--> -te potential form

          X wa A ga V-eru

          彼はパスタが作れます
          kare wa pasuta ga tsukuremasu
          He can make pasta

          妹は昔ピアノがひけました
          imouto wa mukashi piano ga hikemashita
          Some time ago, my younger sister could play piano [昔-->mukashi-->old days]

          それはこの図書館で調べられる
          sore wa kono toshokan de shiraberareru
          You can make research about that in this library [調べる-->shiraberu-->to research]

          私はひらがなが書けますが漢字は書けません
          watashi wa hiragana ga kakemasu ga kanji wa kakemasen
          I can't write hiragana but not kanji

          彼は卵が食べられません
          kare wa tamago ga taberaremasen
          He can't eat eggs

          Also V-eru may mean "it's allowed, it's not allowed" depending on the context

          ここははだしでは入れません
          koko wa hadashi de wa hairemasen
          It's not allowed to enter here barefoot [はだし-->hadashi-->barefoot]

          Lately, in Japan, they started to get the potential form of ichidan verbs just as the godan verbs with "B5+ru" instead of "B1-rareru"but it's still considered colloquial:

          base form----------B1-rareru-----------B5-ru
          miru------------------mirareru-----------mireru
          kiru-------------------kirareru------------kireru
          taberu--------------taberareru--------tabereru
          okiru-----------------okirareru----------okireru · close

            Comment
          • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #27 - Potential Forms - Dekiru

            Posted on 30 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 434 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

            In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

            X wa A ga dekiru

            X is the person who is able to do something
            A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
            dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

            彼はイタリア語ができる
            kare wa itariago dekiru
            he knows italian (language)

            あなたはバイオリンができますか
            anata wa b...

            Read more (491 words more)

            In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

            X wa A ga dekiru

            X is the person who is able to do something
            A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
            dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

            彼はイタリア語ができる
            kare wa itariago dekiru
            he knows italian (language)

            あなたはバイオリンができますか
            anata wa baiorin ga dekimasuka
            can you play the violin?

            みずきは日本の料理ができる
            mizuki wa nihon no ryori ga dekiru
            Mizuki can do japanese dishes

            私はテニスができない
            watashi wa tenisu ga dekinai
            i can't play tennis

            But this structure is not only used to express the ability (or not) to do something. In some contexts it may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed"

            今日は雨でテニスができません
            kyou wa ame de tenisu ga dekimasen
            I can't play tennis today due to rain

            X wa A o Verb(B4) koto ga dekiru

            In the previous structure, there aren't other verbs except "dekiru". Only the activity is expressed.
            This second structure is used to express also the verb togheter with the activity.

            彼女はピアノをひくことができます
            kanojo wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru
            She can play the piano [ひく-->hiku-->to play]

            彼は片手でタイプを打つことができる
            kare wa katate de taipu o utsu koto ga dekiru
            He can type with one hand [片手-->katate-->with one hand タイプを打つ-->taipu o utsu-->to type]

            母はケーキをつくることができる
            haha wa keeki o tsukuru koto ga dekiru
            My mother can do cakes

            When the verb is a composed verb with "suru" (e.g. shippai suru --> to fail), you can't use this structure cause you would repeat "dekiru" twice... so you have to use the previous one.. let's see an example with the verb "unten suru"-->to drive

            酔っぱらっていては運転ができません
            yobbaratte ite wa unten ga dekimasen
            You can't drive if you are drunk [yobbaratte ite--> Being drunk]

            Also this structure may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed" depending on the context.

            この博物館では写真をとることができません
            kono hakubutsukan de wa shashin o toru koto ga dekimasen
            In this museum, it's not allowed to take photos [博物館-->hakubutsukan-->museum 写真-->shashin-->photo]

            X wa A ga wakaru

            This structure can be used with languages with the meaning of "X understand A"

            彼はイタリア語がわかる
            kare wa itariago ga wakaru
            He understands italian (language)

            あなたは日本語がわかりますか
            anata wa nihongo ga wakarimasuka
            do you understand japanese?

            はい、少しわかります
            hai, sukoshi wakarimasu
            Yes, i understand a bit

            いいえ、全然わかりません
            iie, zenzen wakarimasen
            no, I don't understand at all

            X wa A ga jouzu/hata/tokui/nigate desu

            This is a particular structure whose meaning change depending on which one of those 4 words you use:

            X wa A ga jouzu desu --> X is good at A
            X wa A ga hata desu --> X sucks at A
            X wa A ga tokui desu --> X is good at A that he likes
            X wa A ga nigate desu --> X sucks at A that he doesn't like

            彼女は刺繍がじょうずだ
            kanojo ga shishuu ga jouzu da
            she is good at embroidery

            この人は数学がにがてだ
            kono hito wa suugaku ga nigate da
            This man sucks at math and he doesn't like it

            In the next lesson we'll see the potential form of the verb ^^ · close

            like  
              Comment
            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #26 - Permission and Advice

              Posted on 28 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 44 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

              Permission

              V-te mo ii/kamawanai

              This structure is used to ask and give the permission to do something. So it can be translated as "Can I...?" or "You can..."

              ii is a normal I-Adjectives, but it's the only one that is irregular. In fact it derives from another adjective "yoi" that means "good" too and its declination is mostly taken from yoi's declination.
              Anyway, in this context, you'll use it only in its plain form.....

              Read more (594 words more)

              Permission

              V-te mo ii/kamawanai

              This structure is used to ask and give the permission to do something. So it can be translated as "Can I...?" or "You can..."

              ii is a normal I-Adjectives, but it's the only one that is irregular. In fact it derives from another adjective "yoi" that means "good" too and its declination is mostly taken from yoi's declination.
              Anyway, in this context, you'll use it only in its plain form.. or in its polite form simply adding desu.

              ここに座ってもいいですか
              koko ni suwatte mo ii desuka
              can I sit here?

              possible answers:

              はい、どうぞ
              はい、いいです
              いいえ、いけません
              hai, douzo
              hai, ii desu
              iie, ikemasen
              yes, please
              yes, you can
              no, you can't

              電話を使ってもいいですか
              denwa o tsukatte mo ii desuka
              can i use the phone?

              父は私に留学してもいいと言った
              chichi wa watashi ni ryuugaku shite mo ii to itta
              My father told me that i can study abroad [留学-->ryuugaku-->study abroad]

              In the last sentence "v-te mo ii" is used to say "i can" in an indirect speech, but it's not possible to use it in a direct sentence.

              "watashi wa ryuugaku shite mo ii desu" is NOT correct.

              When you want to say "I can..." even if it has the meaning of "I'm allowed to.." you have to use one of the potential forms that we will see in the next lesson.

              So for example: "I can study abroad" is "watashi wa ryuugaku dekiru"

              Adjectives (in -te form) mo ii/kamawanai

              With adjectives "mo ii/kamawanai" means "it's ok even if it's adjective" "I don't care if it's adjective"

              壁の色は黄色でもいいですよ
              kabe no iro wa kiirode mo ii desu yo
              It's ok even if the wall is yellow [色-->iro-->color 黄-->ki-->yellow]

              台所が小さくてもかまわない
              daidokoro ga chiisakute mo kamawanai
              I don't care if the kitchen is small

              It's not necessary that.. / It's not needed that..

              V-nakute mo ii/kamawanai
              B4 hitsuyou wa nai

              どうしても東京へ行かなければなりませんか
              doushite mo toukyou e ikanakereba narimasenka
              Do i really have to go to tokyo?

              いいえ、いく必要はありません
              iie, iku hitsuyou wa arimasen
              No, it's not necessary

              いいえ、行かなくてもいいです
              iie, ikanakutemo ii desu
              No, it's not necessary

              気分が悪いなら来なくてもいいです
              kibun ga warui nara konakute mo ii desu
              If you don't feel well, it's not necessary that you come

              Advice

              Affermative: V-ta hou ga ii ---> "It's better if you..", "you better..", "you should.."
              Negative: V-nai hou ga ii ---> "It's better if you don't.." "you better don't.." "you shouldn't.."

              この家は売ったほうがいい
              kono ie wa utta hou ga ii
              It's better if you sell this house

              あのドレスは買わないほうがいい
              ano doresu wa kawanai hou ga ii
              You shouldn't buy that dress

              コーヒーは寝る前に飲まないほうがいいです
              koohii wa neru mae ni nomanai hou ga ii
              You better don't drink coffee before going to bed

              彼は、日本語は難しいからやめたほうがいいと言う
              kare wa nihongo wa muzukashii kara yameta hou ga ii to iu
              He says, since japanese is diffcult, that it's better to give up

              V-tara dou desuka

              We already encountered it right? I remember you that this is used to push someone to do something.. "why don't you..." "you should.."

              先生に話して見たらどうですか
              sensei ni hanashite mitara dou desuka
              why don't you try to speak to the teacher?

              B4 + koto da

              This is another way to give advices. It has the same meaning as "hou ga ii"

              あまり安いものは買わないことだ
              amari yasui mono wa kawanai koto da
              It's better to do not buy things too cheap [あまり-->amari-->too much]

              彼と結婚したくないならはっまり言うことだ
              kare to kekkon shitakunai nara hammari iu koto da
              If you don't want to marry him, you better tell him straight [結婚-->kekkon-->marriage はっまり-->hammari-->straight] · close

              like  
                Comment
              • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #25 - Obligation and Prohibition

                Posted on 27 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 49 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

                Obligation

                The first structure we will see expresses an absolute necessity to do something.
                In other words, it represents what in english is "must" and "have to"

                Verb(B1) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                I-Adj(B2-ku) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                Na-Adj(B2-de) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai

                The use of "nakereba" or "nakutewa" is up to you.

                私は働かなければならない
                watashi wa hatarakanakereba naranai
                ...

                Read more (586 words more)

                Obligation

                The first structure we will see expresses an absolute necessity to do something.
                In other words, it represents what in english is "must" and "have to"

                Verb(B1) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                I-Adj(B2-ku) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                Na-Adj(B2-de) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai

                The use of "nakereba" or "nakutewa" is up to you.

                私は働かなければならない
                watashi wa hatarakanakereba naranai
                I have to work [働く-->hataraku-->to work]

                you can conjugate"naranai" just as the auxiliary -nai:

                あの日はどうしても家になくてはならなかった
                ano hi wa doushite mo ie ni nakutewa naranakatta
                That day, I absolutely had to stay at home

                And you can use it in polite form too:

                男は強くなければなりません
                otoko wa tsuyoku nakereba narimasen
                Men have to be strong

                When the subject is in 2nd person, it's more common to use "ikenai" instead of "naranai"

                あしたは彼に謝らなければいけない
                ashita wa kare no ayamaranakereba ikenai
                Tomorrow, you have to apologize to him [謝る-->ayamaru-->to apologize]

                急いで行かなくてはいけない
                isoide ikanakutewa ikenai
                You must go in a hurry. [急いで-->isoide-->in a hurry]

                "ikenai" has a conversational variant "dame da"

                それはどうしても言わなければだめだ
                sore wa doushite mo iwanakereba dame da
                You absolutely have to tell that

                Also "nakereba" and "nakutewa" have conversational variants "nakerya" "nakya" "nakucha"

                父は助けなきゃならなかった
                chichi wa tasukenakya naranakatta
                I had to help my father

                ***"nakereba" and "nakute wa" are just "nai" conjugated in its conditional form and -te form respectively. That's why they are attached to verbs' B1 and adjectives' B2.

                B3 beki da

                With this structure you express moral obligation. You can translate it with "must" or "have to" anyway, but with the meaning of "it's right/correct/appropriate"

                あなたは彼にそれを話すべきだ
                anata wa kare ni sore o hanasu beki da
                You have to talk to him about that. (implied meaning--> "cause it's the right thing to do")

                Conjugating "da" you can get past and negative form.

                若い時にもっと勉強しておくべきだった
                wakai toki ni motto benkyou shite oku beki datta
                I should have studied more when i was young [若い-->wakai-->young 時-->toki-->time, used in temporal clause]

                親にそんなことを言うべきではない
                oya ni sonna koto o iu beki dewanai
                you shouldn't tell that kind of things to parents

                As you see, only "da" is conjugated while the verb that express the action is always in its plain form.

                Prohibition

                V-te wa naranai/ikenai

                This is used to express thing you don't have to do, so you can translate it with "don't have to" must not" but also "can't".
                Again, "ikenai" can be changed with its conversational form "dame da"

                図書館でタバコをすってはならない
                toshokan de tabako o sutte wa naranai
                you must not smoke in the library

                決して彼に秘密を漏らしてはいけない
                kesshite kare ni himitsu o morashite wa ikenai
                You don't have to reveal the secret to him [秘密-->himitsu-->secret 漏らす-->morasu-->reveal]

                言ってはいけないことを言ってしまった
                itte wa ikenai koto o itte shimatta
                I ended up saying things i should have not said

                Adjectives (in -te form) wa ikenai

                With adjectives you can use this structure. it means "it must not be adjective" or also "it can't be adjectives".

                あした着る服は明るくてはいけません
                ashita kiru fuku wa akarukute wa ikemasen
                The clothes you'll wear tomorrow mustn't be bright

                病院は不潔ではいけない
                byouin wa fuketsude wa ikenai
                An hospital can't be dirty

                Some prohibitions you'll find if you go to Japan ^^

                禁煙--->kin'en---> NO smoking
                駐車禁止--->chushakinshi---> NO parking
                面会を禁ず--->menkai o kinzu---> NO visit allowed
                芝生にはいるべからず--->shibafu ni wa iru bekarazu--> Keep off the grass · close

                like  
                  Comment
                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #24 - Request

                  Posted on 26 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 139 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                  In this lesson we will see how to ask people to do something without being considered rude or impolite.

                  V-te kudasai

                  This is the most versatile form of request. It's polite enough to be used with everyone, even the first time you meet them.

                  そこで待ってください 
                  soko de matte kudasai
                  Wait there please

                  部屋に入てください
                  heya ni haite kudasai
                  Enter in the room please

                  You may guess how it is the negative form.. try to make your guess.. if you are...

                  Read more (244 words more)

                  In this lesson we will see how to ask people to do something without being considered rude or impolite.

                  V-te kudasai

                  This is the most versatile form of request. It's polite enough to be used with everyone, even the first time you meet them.

                  そこで待ってください 
                  soko de matte kudasai
                  Wait there please

                  部屋に入てください
                  heya ni haite kudasai
                  Enter in the room please

                  You may guess how it is the negative form.. try to make your guess.. if you are right, you already have a japanese mind :D

                  B1-naide kudasai

                  Yeah, you just have to use the negative V-te form, using the negative auxiliary -nai, conjugating it into its -te form "naide" and attaching it to the conjugated base that is used with "nai".. B1 as always.

                  花をふまないでください
                  hana o fumanaide kudasai
                  Do not step on the flowers please

                  絵にふれないでください
                  e ni furenaide kudasai
                  Don't touch the paintings please

                  V-te kure

                  kure is simply the plain form of kudasai, so it has same meaning and it's used the same way. The only difference is that it's not polite as kudasai, so it may be used only among friends or with an inferior person.

                  その話は止めてくれ
                  sono hanashi wa yamete kure
                  Stop telling that story please

                  Obviously, the negative form is B1-naide kure

                  怒らないでくれ
                  okoranaide kure
                  don't get angry please

                  There is no problem if you use V-te kure in indirect speech, cause, as always, it doesn't affect the politeness of the sentence.

                  お金を貸してくれとたのまれた
                  okane o kashite kure to tanomareta
                  He asked me to lend him some money

                  Other expression of request

                  V-te kure tamae: Used by men with inferiors
                  V-te okure: Used by parents with kids or masters with servants
                  V-te choudai: Used by women with friends or inferiors
                  V-te ne/yo: used by women with firends, by kids with relatives, among friends · close

                  like  
                    Comment
                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #23 - Imperative

                    Posted on 24 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 116 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

                    Imperative is obviously used to give an order to someone else.
                    In Japan, the way you talk with others and the politeness you use is very important. So use this carefully.

                    Imperative form of the verb: B6

                    Ok, this is quite simple.. you simply have to remember how you get the B6 conjugated form and use it in a sentence.
                    You forgot? :D Read again Lesson #11 ^^

                    彼に手紙を書け
                    kare ni tegami o kake
                    Write a letter to him!

                    ここで待て
                    koko de mate
                    Wait here!

                    あのを見ろ
                    ano o ...

                    Read more (451 words more)

                    Imperative is obviously used to give an order to someone else.
                    In Japan, the way you talk with others and the politeness you use is very important. So use this carefully.

                    Imperative form of the verb: B6

                    Ok, this is quite simple.. you simply have to remember how you get the B6 conjugated form and use it in a sentence.
                    You forgot? :D Read again Lesson #11 ^^

                    彼に手紙を書け
                    kare ni tegami o kake
                    Write a letter to him!

                    ここで待て
                    koko de mate
                    Wait here!

                    あのを見ろ
                    ano o miro
                    Look that!

                    よく勉強しろ
                    yoku benkyou shiro
                    Study well!

                    Ichidan verbs and suru has an imperative literary variant.

                    V.Ichidan: -ro--->-yo
                    suru: shiro--->seyo

                    Negative imperative: B3+na

                    酒を飲んだら運転するな
                    sake o nondara unten suruna
                    If you drink alcohol, don't drive! [運転する-->unten suru-->to drive]

                    彼にとってこのケーキを作ったので食べるな
                    kare ni totte kono keeki o tsukutta no de teberu na
                    Since i did this cake for him, don't eat it!

                    Imperative form B6 is a real order so it sounds rude and impolite. So it's used only in the following cases:

                    -Men can use it talking with male friends or an inferior person adding "yo" at the end to lessen the harshness.
                    早く行けよ
                    hayaku ike yo
                    go fast!

                    あした必ずこの仕事を終えろよ
                    ashita kanarazu kono shigoto o oero yo
                    Make sure to finish this work by tomorrow [必ず-->kanarazu-->absolutely]

                    -Military orders.

                    止まれ
                    tomare
                    stop!

                    進め
                    susume
                    go ahead!

                    -In written language, for example in the questions of an exam.

                    動詞を過去形にせよ
                    doushi o kakokei ni seyo
                    Put the verb into past form

                    答えを書け
                    kotae o kake
                    write the answer

                    In indirect speech the harshness of the B6 doesn't affect the politeness of the whole sentence that is determined by the verb of the principal clause.
                    For example:
                    彼に酒は止めろといつも言っています
                    kare ni sake wa yamero to itsumo itte imasu
                    I always tell him to stop drinking alcohol

                    This is a polite sentence cause "itte imasu" is in its polite form.

                    we'll talk about indirect speech later, just remember that it's always the verb in the principal clause the determine the politeness of the sentence and not the verbs in subordinate clauses!

                    B2 + nasai

                    This structure is still imperative but a bit less harsh and rude than the simple B6. Being an imperative, is usually used only by teachers to students or parents to kids.

                    ここに座りなさい
                    koko ni suwarinasai
                    Sit here

                    早くバスに乗りなさい
                    hayaku basu ni norinasai
                    Get on the bus. fast!

                    For the negative form you can use the expression of prohibition "V-te wa ikenai"

                    座ってはいけません
                    suwatte wa ikemasen
                    Don't sit

                    ここにごみをすててはいけない
                    koko ni gomi o sutete wa ikenai
                    Don't throw your trash here

                    To lessen the harshness you can add "o" before the verb:

                    お立ちなさい
                    o tachinasai
                    Get up

                    これをお使いなさい
                    kore o o tsukainasai
                    Use this

                    B2 + tamae

                    This structure may be used by men toward an inferior

                    いつでも家へ来たまえ
                    itsudemo ie e kitamae
                    Come to my home anytime

                    ぜひあの本を読みたまえ
                    zehi ano hon o yomitamae
                    You absolutely have to read that book [ぜひ-->zehi-->absolutely]

                    Final note
                    Due to reasons of politeness, expressions of request are usually used instead of imperative expressions.
                    We'll see them in next lesson ^^ · close

                    like  
                      Comment
                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #22 - Exhortative

                      Posted on 23 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 92 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                      Exhortative is used when who talks exhorts or asks someone to do something (together or not). It's different from imperative cause exhortative is more like a request and not an order.

                      Volite form + ka/yo/ya

                      As i already said last lesson, the volitive form, when the subject is not expressed, may have exhortative value.
                      This is the japanese version of the english "let's..."
                      In fact, who talk asks the interlocutor to do something togheter.
                      Adding a final particle, you ...

                      Read more (308 words more)

                      Exhortative is used when who talks exhorts or asks someone to do something (together or not). It's different from imperative cause exhortative is more like a request and not an order.

                      Volite form + ka/yo/ya

                      As i already said last lesson, the volitive form, when the subject is not expressed, may have exhortative value.
                      This is the japanese version of the english "let's..."
                      In fact, who talk asks the interlocutor to do something togheter.
                      Adding a final particle, you are asking for the interlocutor's consent

                      もう帰ろう
                      mou kaeru
                      Let's go back already!

                      食べ始めよう
                      tabe hajimeyou
                      Let's start eating!

                      きみこさんに手紙を書きましょうか
                      let's write a letter to kimiko, ok?

                      When the volitive form is used with the particle ka, it may be both interrogative volitive and exhortative.

                      窓を開けましょうか
                      mado o akemashouka

                      This sentence may be used to say:

                      shall i open the window?
                      or
                      Let's open the window!

                      The difference is that in the interrogative volite translation the subject is "watashi ga"
                      if it happens that the subject is not expressed like in this case, only the context may help you understanding the real meaning.

                      -nai ka -masen ka

                      With the negative interrogative sentence, you can express the meaning "why we don't do...?"
                      It may also be translated in others ways like "what about...?" "would you like to..?"

                      テニスをしませんか
                      tenisu o shimasenka
                      why we don't play tennis? / what about playing tennis? / would you like to play tennis?

                      あの喫茶店に行かないか
                      ano kissaten ni ikanaika
                      what about going to that cafè?

                      -tara dou ka / -tara dou desu ka

                      This structure is used to exhort or push the interlocutor to do something (not together). With the meaning "why don't YOU...?"
                      This is an advice, a suggestion you give to the interlocutor.

                      -tara is, in practice, V-ta + ra so it's used with B2/B2a conjugated form of the verbs.

                      そのお金を銀行にあずけたらどうですか
                      sono okane o ginkou no azuketara dou desuka
                      Why you don't deposit this money in bank?

                      日曜日に行ったらどうか
                      nichiyoubi ni ittara dou ka
                      why you don't go there on sunday?

                      Used with a name "dou desuka" o "ikaga desu ka" means "would you like...?"

                      お菓子をどうですか
                      okashi o dou desuka
                      would you like something sweet?

                      もう一杯いかがですか
                      mou ippai ikaga desuka
                      would you like another cup? · close

                      like  
                        Comment

                      Meet new Asian friends! Join FREE!

                      Copyright © 2014 JpopAsia · Terms of service · Privacy policy · Community rules