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DottDivine

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dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 5 years ago. He owns like 1,321 Jpops and was last seen here about 6 hours ago

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  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #35 - If clauses (part 2)

    Posted on 26 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 96 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

    So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
    We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

    V-tara

    V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
    With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
    With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

    V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followe...

    Read more (1033 words more)

    So, here we are with the last 2 ways to make a conditional period in japanese.
    We already studied "V-ba" and "nara" now let's go with "V-tara" and "to"

    V-tara

    V-tara is nothing else that the past verb V-ta + ra
    With adjectives it's the same, you take the past form of the adjectives and you add "-ra"
    With nouns it's: N+ datta + ra

    V-tara is used in the protasis like the others conditional forms and it's often followed by an apodosis expressing an opinion, advice, request, volitive or a guess.
    But it hasn't the same meaning of "nara".
    In fact, V-tara has the meaning of "when..." and not only "if..". Obviously, the clause with "when" express a condition that has to happen before the action in the principal clause.

    大阪に着いたら手紙を書いてください
    oosaka ni tsuitara tegami o kaite kudasai
    When you arrive in Osaka, write me a letter please

    車が治ったら山に行こう
    kuruma ga naottara yama ni ikou
    when (if) the car will be repaired, we'll go to the mountain

    It also have the meaning of "If, by chance, it happens that.."

    彼に見られたら恥ずかしい
    kare ni miraretara hazukashii
    It's emberrassing to be seen with him (If it happens that i'm seen with him, it's embarrassing)

    時間があったら映画を見に行こう
    jikan ga attara eiga o mi ni ikou
    If there is time, let's go to see a movie

    寒かったら大変だ
    samukattara taihen da
    If it's cold, it's troublesome

    私だったらそんなこはしない
    watashi dattara sonna koto wa shinai
    If it was me, i wouldn't do it

    Differences between V-ba, nara and V-tara

    Before talking about "to" that has it's particular use.. let's see the differences between these 3 ways to express a conditional period since they are similar.

    Temporal relation between protasis (P) and apodosis (A)

    Let's see this 3 sentences:

    ---------P----------------------------------A----------
    1)nihon e ikeba--------------sushi ga taberareru
    2)nihon e iku nara-----------sushi ga taberareru
    3)nihon e ittara--------------sushi ga taberareru

    Only V-tara tell that (P) happens before (A), so sentence 3 is "When you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi" "Once you'll go to Japan, you'll be able to eat sushi"
    In sentence 1 and 2 (P) may happens both before or after (A).. so the translation is more hypothetical "If you go to Japan, you can eat sushi"
    The only difference is that with V-ba, (P) usually happens before (A), while with "nara" it may be both.
    Let's see other 3 examples to explain it:

    -----------P----------------------------------A---------
    1)nihon e ikeba-------------nihongo ga benkyou dekiru
    2)nihon e iku nara----------nihongo o oshiete ageyou
    3)nihon e ittara-------------nihongo o oshiete morainasai

    Again, in sentence 3 (P) happens before (A) "Since you have been in Japan, teach me japanese"
    In sentence 1, (P) happens before (A) "If you go to Japan, you can study Japanese" (there, in Japan)
    In sentence 2, (P) may happens both before or after (A) "If/When you go to Japan, teach me japanese". The sentence is good both if you ask to be teached japanese before he goes to Japan or once he is in Japan.
    Anyway, talking about temporal relation, you can consider V-ba and "nara" as almost the same thing.

    General condition vs Specific condition

    V-ba is used for general condition that has a consequence that usually happens. "If you... it always happens that.."
    While nara and V-tara are used for specific condition, single events. "When you... it happened that..."

    suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuku --> If you switch on, the radio turns on (normal event, it always happens)
    suicchi o hinereba rajio ga tsuita --> Every time i switched on, the radio turned on
    suicchi o hinettara rajio ga tsuita --> When i switched on, the radio turned on (you are describing the single event)

    Restriction depending of the kind of sentence in the apodosis

    V-ba is the one that expresses objectivity the most, so is usually not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a request, volitive, exhortative, imperative, a guess or prohibition.
    In that case use nara or V-tara.

    to

    "to" is used for natural events that happen regularly, habits, math and scientific rules, so the apodosis always expresses a natural and logic consequence.

    春になると花が咲きます
    haru ni naru to hana ga sakimasu
    When spring comes, flowers bloom

    3に2を足すと5になる
    3 ni 2 o tasu to 5 ni naru
    If you add 2 to 3, it becomes 5 (or simply 3+2=5 :D)

    雨が降るとここはよく洪水になる
    ame ga furu to koko wa yoku kouzui ni naru
    When it rains, this place is often flooded

    私が行くといつも彼女はケーキを作れる
    watashi ga iku to itsumo kanojo wa keeki o tsukureru
    When i go, she always make me a cake

    Just as V-ba, "to" is not used when the apodosis is an opinion, a guess, request, volitive etc...

    haru ni naru to hana o uemasu --> when spring comes flowers are planted
    haru ni naru uemashou---> is WRONG!

    To say "when spring comes, let's plant flowers", you have to use nara or V-tara. In this case V-tara is probably better.
    haru ni nattara uemashou --> When spring will arrive, let's plant flowers

    Real hypothesis

    When the condition is no more than a simple hypothesis, V-ba, nara, V-tara and to are used with hypothetical adverbs "moshi" or "mangaichi". In this case they must always be translated with "If.."

    もし彼が家にいれば会えます
    moshi kare ga ie ni ireba aemasu
    If he is at home, you can meet him

    万が一彼が来なかったらどうしよう
    mangaichi kare ga konakattara doushiyou
    If by chance he doesn't come, what would i do?

    もしインドにも行くならおみやげを買ってきてください
    moshi indo ni mo iku nara omiyage o katte kite kudasai
    If you go in India too, buy me a present please

    万が一ガラスが割れるとけがをしますよ
    mangaichi garasu ga wareru to kega o shimasu yo
    If the glass breaks, you'll get injured
    Unrealizable hypothesis

    This is an hypothesis on an event that can't be realized, so the action in the apodosis won't happen. The apodosis often ends with "noni"

    もっと安ければあのドレスを買うのに
    motto yasukereba ano doresu o kau noni
    If it was cheaper, I would buy that dress

    But the hypothesis is not true, cause actually that dress is not cheaper, so you won't buy it

    皆がよく働いたらもっと早く終わっただろうのに
    mina ga yoku hataraitara motto hayaku owatta darou noni
    If everyone had worked better, we would have probably finished earlier

    あしたでないならその会に行けるのに
    ashita de nai nara sono kai ni ikeru noni
    If it wasn't tomorrow, i could go to the meeting · close

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    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #34 - If clauses

      Posted on 23 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 170 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

      The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
      Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

      CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
      If .......... + then.....

      B5 + ba

      This represents the conditional forms...

      Read more (741 words more)

      The conditional japanese period is always formed by a protasis containing the conditional form and a apodosis with the predicate in B3.
      Compared to english, you won't be troubled by verb tenses, but there are 4 ways to express the conditional forms and you'll have to pick them depending on what are you saying, depending on the correlation between apodosis and protasis.

      CONDITIONAL PROTASIS + APODOSIS (B3)
      If .......... + then.....

      B5 + ba

      This represents the conditional forms of verbs and adjectives. I will simply call it V-ba from now on.
      The verbs in V-Ba is used in the protasis.

      If the V-ba verb is an "action verb", you can't use volitive, exhortative, imperative, request, prohibition or advice in the apodosis.

      この薬を飲めば、治りますよ
      kono kusuri o nomeba naorimasu yo
      If you take this medicine, you'll get well

      この大学を出れば、いい会社に入れる
      kono daigaku o dereba ii kaisha ni haireru
      If i graduate from this university, I'll enter in a good company

      With stative verbs or adjective there are no restriction for the verb of the apodosis

      高くなければ会なさい
      takakunakereba kai nasai
      If it's not expensive, buy it

      日本へ行きたければ日本語を習ったほうがいいですよ
      nihon e ikitakereba nihongo o natta houga ii desu yo
      If you want to go to Japan, you better learn japanese

      B5+ba is the only form of V-ba, but even if V-ba hasn't a past form.. it can describe a past event if the verb of the apodosis is in past tense.
      In this case it describe an HABITUAL action and NOT a single action (to describe a single action in a past conditional period you have to use "tara".. one of the other conditional forms)

      あの人に頼めば必ず教えてくれた
      ano hito ni tanomeba kanarazu oshiete kureta
      If i asked that man, he always answered

      Compare it with this sentence with "tara":

      あの人に頼んだらすぐ教えてくれた
      ano hito ni tanondara sugu oshiete kureta
      WHEN i asked him, he immediately answered

      Nara

      Verbs (B4) + nara
      I-Adjectives (B4) + nara
      Na-Adjectives (root) + nara
      Nouns + nara

      When "nara" is used with a verb at present tense, it expresses a contitional clause on present or future event. This kind of protasis is usually followed by an apodosis that expresses a judgement, a guess, volitive or the opinion of the talker. It's rarely used with objective apodosis. You can consider "nara" complementary to V-ba in this case. When you can't use V-ba, you can use "nara".
      The subject of the protasis is usually at 2nd or 3rd person.

      あすいい天気なら行こう
      asu ii tenki nara ikou
      if tomorrow the weather is good, i'll go

      いい天気ではないなら行くまい
      ii tenki dewanai nara ikumai
      If the weather is not good, i won't go

      あなたが歌うなら私も歌います
      anata ga utau nara watashi mo utaimasu
      If you sing, I'll sing too

      日本へ行くなら日本語を勉強しておきなさい
      nihon e iku nara nihongo o benkyou shite okinasai
      If you go to Japan, study japanese
      Since you go to Japan, study japanese (first)

      ケーキを作るなら私にも一切れください
      keeki o tsukuru nara watashi ni mo ichi kire kudasai
      If (Since) you make a cake, give a piece to me too

      Used with verbs in past tense, it expresses a conditional clause on a past event that it's surely already happened. So it means "Since...., then.."

      ローマへ行ったならバチカンへも行ったでしょう
      rooma e itta nara bachikan e mo itta deshou
      Since you have been in Rome, you probably visited Vatican too

      彼に会ったならそのことを知っている
      kare ni atta nara sono koto o shitte iru
      Since you met him, you should know that thing

      "nara" can be used in conditional period with apodosis that expresses an advice/opinion.
      In this case the sentence is translated "If you want to.. then (i advice you to)..."

      テレビを買うならあの店が安いですよ
      terebi o kau nara ano mise ga yasui desu yo
      If you want to buy a TV, that store has low prices (--> so i advice you to go there)

      アメリカへ行くならぜひ ニューヨークへ行きなさい
      amerika e iku nara zehi nyuuyouku e ikinasai
      If you go to USA, you absolutely have to go to New York

      As we saw before, nara doesn't express only hypothesis but also verified/already happened events. So it doesn't only mean "if.." but also "Since..".
      Japanese has other expressions that can be used instead of "nara" when it means "Since.."

      They are: to suruto, to shitara, to sureba, to naruto.

      They are used at the end of the protasis with verbs in B3, and they are followed by the principal clauses

      彼は来ないとすると奥さんも来ないだろう
      kare wa konai to suruto okusan mo konai darou
      Since he doesn't come, his wife won't probably come too

      きのう彼は酒を飲みすぎたとなると今日頭がいたい
      kinou kare wa sake o nomi sugita to naruto kyou atama ga itai
      Since he drank too much yesterday, today he has headache

      Next lesson: the other 2 conditional forms: "tara" and "to" · close

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      • Let's Jap Together - Les. #33 - Guess/Uncert. - souda / kamo shirenai / hazu da

        Posted on 21 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 143 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

        After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

        souda / soudesu

        Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
        Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

        With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
        But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
        It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
        Let's look at this example:

        kono ringo wa oishi souda-...

        Read more (778 words more)

        After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

        souda / soudesu

        Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
        Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

        With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
        But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
        It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
        Let's look at this example:

        kono ringo wa oishi souda---> this apple looks delicious
        kono ringo wa ama souda---> this apple looks sweet
        kono ringo wa mazu souda---> this apple looks bad tasting
        kono ringo wa furu souda---> this apple looks old

        This sentence are all correct and they are made looking at the apple. The look of the apple makes the talker think that the apple may be "delicious" "sweet" "bad tasting" "old"

        You can't use souda with adjectives like "akai" (red) "ookii" (big) "marui" (rounded).. cause you are looking at the apple, so you can tell if it's red, big or rounded... you are not guessing.

        If it happens that you are far from the apple and you have to say "That apples seems red", you have to use youda or rashii --> "ano ringo wa akai youda"/"ano ringo wa akai rashii"

        Souda can also be used to make a guess on a future events that it seems they are going to happen soon. Also this guess is based on ocular observation.

        今にも雨が降りそうだ
        ima ni mo ame ga furi souda
        It looks like it's gonna rain soon

        このバスは止まりそうです
        kno basu wa tomari soudesu
        It seems that this bus is going to stop

        With potential verbs souda means "it looks like he can..." "it seems he can.."

        この車はまだ使えそうだ
        kono kuruma wa mada tsukae souda
        It looks like this car can still be used

        あの会社には入れそうではない
        ano kaisha ni wa haire soudewanai
        It seems i can't enter in that company

        Souda can be used in an attributive form and an adverbial form.
        The attributive form is "souna" while the adverbial is "souni"

        彼は高そうな車を買った
        kare wa taka souna kuruma o katta
        he bought a car that looks expensive

        彼はうれしそうに話した
        kare wa ureshi souni hanashita
        he spoke happily (he spoke in a way that looked happy)

        Now compre these sentences:

        ima ni mo ame ga furi souda --> It looks like is going to rain soon
        ame ga futte iru youda --> It seems it's raining (told by someone in direct contact with the rain)
        nihon de wa rokugatsu ni ame ga yoku furu youda (rashii) --> it seems that (i heard that) in japan it rains a lot on June
        tabun ashita ame ga furu darou --> It will probably rain tomorrow (subjective guess)

        kamo shirenai / kamo shiremasen

        Verbs: B4 + kamo shirenai
        I-Adjectives: B4 + kamo shirenai
        Na-Adjectives: Root + kamo shirenai
        Nouns: N + kamo shirenai

        With kamo shirenai you make a guess that is the most unsure among all the way we have seen. Who talks is not sure at all of what he is saying.

        私はいくかもしれないし行かないかもしれない
        watashi wa iku kamo shirenai shi ikanai kamo shirenai
        Maybe i'll go, maybe i won't go

        彼は音楽家かもしれない
        kare wa ongaguka kamo shirenai
        He may be a musician (but i'm not sure)

        Compare these sentences:

        kare wa kunai kamo shirenai --> Perhaps he won't come (i'm not sure)
        kare wa kunai darou --> He'll probably won't come
        kare wa kunai rashii --> I heard he won't come
        kare wa kunai youda --> It seems he won't come

        hazu da/desu

        Verbs: B4 + hazu da
        Adjectives: B4 + hazu da
        Nouns: N no hazu da

        This form means "It's supposed to.."
        In fact this is not normal guess, we are talking about something that we expect to happen or it should have already happened.

        彼は三時に駅に着くはずだ
        kare wa sanji ni eki ni tsuku hazu da
        He is supposed to arrive at the station at 3 o'clock

        授業はもう終わったはずだ
        jugyou wa mou owatta hazu da
        The lesson should have already finished

        The negative form of "hazu da" is "hazu ga (wa) nai"and it means "It's not possible that.."

        彼がそんなことを言うはずがない
        kare wa sonna koto o iu hazu ga nai
        It's not possible that he says something like that

        -ni chigai nai / -ni kimatte iru

        Even if this forms are still a guess, the talker is really sure of what he is saying. It means "No doubt that.." "It must..." "Surely..."

        彼が選ばれるにちがいない
        kare ga erabareru ni chigai nai
        No doubt that he will be elected

        そんなことをしたら先に叱られるにきまっている
        sonna koto o shitara sensei ni shikarareru ni kimatte iru
        If you do something like that, you'll surely be scolded by the teacher · close

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        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #32 - Guess/Uncertainty - rashii /youda

          Posted on 17 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 172 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

          Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

          rashii

          rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
          So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
          To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
          Just as darou/deshou, you have to ad...

          Read more (304 words more)

          Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

          rashii

          rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
          So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
          To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
          Just as darou/deshou, you have to add it at the end of the sentence to transform an affermative sentence into a guess.

          Verbs: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
          I-Adjectives: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
          Na-Adjectives: root + rashii/rashii desu
          Nouns: N+ rashii/rashii desu

          The negative guess can be made by both conjugating the verb of the sentence or conjugating rashii (rashikunai).


          あに人は山中さんらしい
          ano hito wa yamanaka-san rashii
          That man seems Yamanaka-san

          どろぼうもう出て行ったらしく、物音が止めた
          dorobou wa mou dete itta rashiku, monooto ga yameta
          It looks like the robber is already gone, the noises stopped

          あした鉄道はストで止まるらしいです
          ashita tetsudou wa suto de tomaru rashii desu
          I heard that the trains will stop tomorrow due to strike

          あの人は病気らしい
          ano hito wa byouki rashii
          As far as i know, that man is sick

          彼はみずきと結婚しないらしい
          kare wa mizuki to kekkon shinai rashii
          I heard that he won't marry Mizuki

          youda/youdesu

          Verbs: B4 + youda/youdesu
          I-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
          Na-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
          Nouns: N no youda/youdesu

          youda is used, just like rashii, to make a guessing with some foundation due to observation but it also add a psychological participation.
          He can be translated as "It seems.." "As far as i know.."

          父はもう帰ってきたようだ
          chichi wa mou kaette kita youda
          It seems my father is already returned

          雨が降っているようだった
          ame ga futte iru youdatta
          It seemed it was raining

          彼はダンススクールに通っているようだ
          kare wa dansu sukuuru ni kayotte iru youda
          As far as i know, he is attending a dance school

          火はもう消えたようです
          hi wa mou kieta youdesu
          It seems that the fire is already extinguished

          youda is also used to express subjective impressions and for guessing on your own behaviour

          その話は以前どこかで聞いたようだ
          sono hanashi wa izen dokoka de kiita youda
          I think i already heard this story somewhere [以前-->izen-->previously]

          私はま違っていたようだ
          watashi wa machigatte ita youda
          It seems i was wrong · close

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          • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #31 - Guess/Uncertainty - darou/deshou

            Posted on 15 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 86 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

            In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
            The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

            Darou / Deshou

            This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
            The...

            Read more (673 words more)

            In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
            The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

            Darou / Deshou

            This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
            The meaning is "I think that.." "Maybe..." "Perhaps.." "It may/might..."
            The structure is simple, you just have to add darou/deshou at the end of a sentence and they'll transform the affermative sentence into a guess.

            Verbs: B3 + darou/deshou
            I-Adj: B3 + darou/deshou
            Na-Adj: root + darou/deshou
            N: N + darou/deshou

            おそらく彼は今晩行くだろう
            osoraku kare wa konban iku darou
            He'll probably go tonight

            たぶん田中さんは映画に行かないだろう
            tabun tanaka-san wa eiga ni ikanai darou
            I think Tanaka-san doesn't go to the movies

            あの建物はたぶん学校だろう
            ano tatemono wa tabun gakkou darou
            That building is probably a school

            --The guess can also be done on past events:

            母はもう東京についたでしょう
            haha wa mou toukyou ni tsuita deshou
            I think my mother is already arrived in Tokyo

            --The guessing can be made involving the interlocutor using final particles as "ka" "ne" "yo" and "sa"
            With "ka" we make a guess asking for an aswer from the interlocutor
            With "ne" we make a guess asking for a confirmation from the interlocutor
            With "yo" and "sa" we are expressing the fact that even if it's a guessing we are confident on what we are saying.

            kare wa konban kuru deshou ka---> maybe he'll come tonight?
            kare wa konban kuru deshou ne---> maybe he'll come tonight, isn't it?
            kare wa konban kuru darou yo---> I'm quite sure he'll come tonight

            When the guessing is expressed in interrogative form, darou/deshou are used instead of the other way to express uncertainty. The guessing can be direct to an interlocutor or also to yourself.

            彼はまだあそこに住んでいるでしょうか
            kare wa mada asoko ni sunde iru deshou ka
            Do you know if he still live there?

            あしたも雪だろうか
            ashita mo yuki darou ka
            I wonder if it'll snow tomorrow too

            --When the guessing is made by a third person you have to use -to omotte iru (without darou/deshou)

            彼は私が頭がいいと思っている
            kare wa watashi ga atama ga ii to omotte iru
            He thinks I'm smart

            When the guessing was made in the past you have to use -to omotta

            私は彼がもう帰ってこたいだろうと思った
            watashi wa kare ga mou kaette konai darou to omotta
            I thought that he would have never come back

            --darou/deshou can be used in a conversation when who talks asks for a confirmation directly to the interlocutor with the meaning of "isn't it?"

            君はその本を彼にもう返しただろう
            kimi wa sono hon wo kare ni mou kaeshita darou
            You have probably already returned that book, isn't it?

            ほら、このセーターいいでしょう
            hora, kono seetaa ii deshou
            look, this sweater is nice, isn't it?

            --this structure has also an honorary form:

            Verbs: B2+ mashou/masudeshou
            Na-Adj: root + de arimashou
            N: N + de gozaimashou

            便利だから学生に喜ばれましょう
            benri da kare gakusei ni yorokobaremashou
            Since it's useful, it will probably be appreciated by the students

            たくさんのお金が必要でありましょう
            takusan no okane ga hitsuyou de arimashou
            A lot of money will probably be necessary [必要な-->hitsuyouna-->necessary]

            Literary expressions

            V-Godan: B1a + u
            Other verbs: B1 + you
            I-Adj: B1(-karo) + u
            Na-Adj: root + dearou
            N: N + dearou

            Negative: B3 + mai
            Emphatic Negative: B2 + wa shimai

            大臣は辞任するこのになろう
            daijin wa jinin suru koto ni narou
            I think the minister will resign [大臣-->daijin-->minister 辞任する-->jinin suru--> to resign]

            これは多くの反論が出てこよう
            kore wa ooku no hanron ga dete koyou
            About that, many opinion will probably come out [出て来る-->dete kuru-->To come out]

            コートがなければさぞ寒かろう
            kooto ga nakereba sazo samukarou
            If he doesn't have the coat, i'm sure he'll be cold [さぞ-->sazo-->surely]

            すぐにその問題を解決することが必要であろう
            sugu ni sono mondai o kaiketsu suru koto ga hitsuyou dearou
            It will probably be necessary to solve this problem immediately

            ドルはもうこれ以上下がるまい
            doru wa mou kore ijou sagarumai
            I don't think the dollar will go down anymore
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            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #30 - Causative

              Posted on 6 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 125 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

              Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

              E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

              V-Saseru

              V. Godan: B1+seru
              V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
              kuru: kosaseru
              suru: saseru

              Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

              kaku--->kakaseru
              iu--->iwaseru
              hanasu--->hanasaseru
              yomu--->yomaseru
              oyogu--->oyogaseru

              deru--->desaseru
              okiru--->okisaseru

              Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

              yomu-->...

              Read more (944 words more)

              Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

              E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

              V-Saseru

              V. Godan: B1+seru
              V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
              kuru: kosaseru
              suru: saseru

              Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

              kaku--->kakaseru
              iu--->iwaseru
              hanasu--->hanasaseru
              yomu--->yomaseru
              oyogu--->oyogaseru

              deru--->desaseru
              okiru--->okisaseru

              Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

              yomu-->read
              yomaseru--> make (someone) read
              yomasemasu--> make (someone) read (polite)
              yomasenai--> don't make (someone) read
              yomasemasen--> don't make (someone) read (polite)
              yomaseta--> made (someone) read
              yomasemashita--> made (someone) read (polite)
              yomasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) read
              yomasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) read
              yomasete--> -te form

              taberu--> eat
              tabesaseru--> make (someone) eat
              tabesasemasu--> make (someone) eat (polite)
              tabesasenai--> don't make (someone) eat
              tabesasemasen--> don't make (someone) eat (polite)
              tabesaseta--> made (someone) eat
              tabesasemashita--> made (someone) eat (polite)
              tabesasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) eat
              tabesasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) eat (polite)
              tabesasete--> -te form

              X wa Y ni N o V-Saseru ---> X make Y do N

              This is the structure of the causative sentence with transitive verbs

              母は妹に皿を洗わせた
              haha wa imouto ni sara o arawaseta
              My mother made my younger sister wash the dishes [皿-->sara-->dishes 洗う-->arau-->to wash]

              彼女に田中さんを飛行場まで送らせよう
              kanojo ni tanaka san o hikoujou made okuraseyou
              I'll make her accompany tanaka-san till the airport [飛行場-->hikoujou-->airport 送る-->okuru-->to send]

              The more complicated the sentence becomes, the most difficult is to make a literal translation. The translation of the last sentence in fact it's not. Sometime, you only have to understand the meaning and translate accordingly.

              X wa Y ni/o V-Saseru

              This is the structure of the causative sentence with intransitive verbs

              社長は彼に/をイタリアへ行かせた
              shachou wa kare ni/o itaria e ikaseta
              The president made him go to Italy

              どうして子供に/をプルで泳がせないのですか
              doushite kodomo ni/o puru de oyogasenai no desuka
              Why don't you make the kids swim in the pool?

              The japanese causative express the idea of "make someone do", "push someone to do" but also the idea of "allow someone to do" "leave someone to do"

              When it has the first meaning, it's like someone force someone else to do something. That's why is possibile, when "X" get an advantange by making "Y" doing something, to use the weakened form "-te morau"
              "Morau" means "to recieve" but as i already said, in japanese "give/receive" are quite complicate... and we'll see them later.. for the moment just remember this option and look at this example:

              私は田中さんに手紙を読ませた
              watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yomaseta
              I made tanaka read the letter

              私は田中さんに手紙を読んでもらった
              watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yonde moratta
              I asked tanaka to read the letter for me

              The second one is way more kind.

              In the next sentences the causative has the second meaning:

              もうおとななのだから、好きなようにさせましょう
              mou otona nano dakara, sukina youni sasemashou
              Since he is an adult already, let's leave him do what he likes

              Translating the causative as "make him do what he likes" is a contradiction.. so it's better "leave him do".. cause this is the true meaning.

              子供をここで遊ばせないでください
              kodomo o koko de asobasenaide kudasai
              Please, don't leave the kids play here

              In this sentence, "don't make the children play here" would be still acceptable, but you understand that it's not that you "push" the kids to play there.. it's more like you "leave" the kids play there.

              How to pick "ni" or "o"

              - If there is another complement marked with "ni" use "o" and viceversa
              - If Y is inanimate use "o"
              mizu o koraseru (make the water freeze)
              - If the verbs express a psycological reaction use "o"
              sensei o komaraseru (make the sensei embarassed)
              gakusei o warawaseru (make the students laugh)

              Intransitive verbs that have a transitive version

              Do you remember those intransitive verbs that also have a corresponding transitive version? no? I talked about them in lesson #16 ^^
              Well, for those verbs, the causative form of the intransitive verbs has similar meaning of the transitive verb. So the transitive verb is generally used.

              neru-->to sleep
              nekasu--> to put to sleep

              kodomo ga neru ---> the kid sleeps
              kodomo o neraseru ---> I make the kid sleep (causative of neru)
              kodomo o nekasu ---> I put the kid to sleep

              noru--> to get on
              noseru--> to make someone get on

              haha ga kisha ni noru ---> my mother get on the train
              haha o kisha ni noraseru --->I make my mother get on the train (causative of noru)
              haha o kisha ni noseru ---> I make my mother get on the train

              In both cases, the last sentence is used, even if the meaning may be slightly different

              V-sasu

              This is another way to make a verb causative. But this is used only in oral japanese, it's considered really colloquial.

              V. Godan: B1+su
              V. Ichidan: B1+sasu
              kuru: kosasu
              suru: sasu

              Some examples:

              kaku--->kakasu
              iu--->iwasu
              hanasu--->hanasasu
              yomu--->yomasu
              oyogu--->oyogasu

              deru--->desasu
              okiru--->okisasu

              This causative form is conjugated like a godan verb endin in -su.
              I don't conjugate it right now cause the lesson is already sooo long :D

              All what i said for V-saseru is still valid for V-sasu too.. so i just make a pair of examples.

              彼に本当のことを言わしましょう
              kare ni hontou no koto o iwashimashou
              Lets make him tell the truth

              彼にこれを作らしてください
              kare ni kore o tsukurashite kudasai
              Make him do this please

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              • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #29 - Passive

                Posted on 4 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 73 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

                Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

                V-rareru

                V. Godan: B1+reru
                V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
                kuru: korareru
                suru: sareru

                No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
                Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
                This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

                Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

                kaku--->kakar...

                Read more (1167 words more)

                Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

                V-rareru

                V. Godan: B1+reru
                V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
                kuru: korareru
                suru: sareru

                No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
                Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
                This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

                Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

                kaku--->kakareru
                iu--->iwareru
                yomu--->yomareru
                kiru(to cut)--->kirareru
                katsu--->katareru

                taberu--->taberareru
                kiru(to wear)--->kirareru

                As the potential form, also the passive form of the verb can be conjugated like a normal ichidan verb in -eru.

                yomu--> read
                yomareru--> is read
                yomaremasu--> is read (polite)
                yomarenai--> isn't read
                yomaremasen--> isn't read (polite)
                yomareta--> was read
                yomaremashita--> was read (polite)
                yomarenakatta--> wasn't read
                yomaremasen deshita--> wasn't read (polite)
                yomarete--> -te form

                suteru--> throw
                suterareru--> is thrown
                suteraremasu--> is thrown (polite)
                suterarenai--> isn't thrown
                suteraremasen--> isn't thrown (polite)
                suterareta--> was thrown
                suteraremashita--> was thrown (polite)
                suterarenakatta--> wasn't thrown
                suteraremasen deshita--> wasn't thrown (polite)
                suterarete--> -te form

                X wa Y ni/ni yotte/kara V-rareru

                This is the structure of the passive sentence.
                X is who is subjected to the action
                Y is the agent complement who does the action

                Active sentence:
                父は兄を殴った
                chichi wa ani o nagutta
                My father beat my older brother (兄-->ani-->older brother 殴る-->naguru-->to beat]

                Passive sentence:
                兄は父に殴られた
                ani wa chichi ni nagurareta
                My older brother was beaten by my father

                山田さんの財布はすりに盗まれた
                yamada-san no saifu wa suri ni nusumareta
                Yamada's wallet was robbed by a pickpocket [財布-->saifu-->wallet すり-->suri-->pickpocket 盗む-->nusumu-->to steal]

                そんなことをすると先生に叱られますよ
                sonna koto o suru to sensei ni shikararemasu yo
                If you do something like that, you'll be scolded by the teacher [叱る-->shikaru-->to scold]

                when to use "ni", "ni yotte" or "kara" to mark the agent complement

                Usually "ni" is used, but there are sentences where is better to use the others.

                If Y is a PERSON:

                -Usually---> "ni"
                -With "directional" verbs you can use "kara" but also "ni". With "directional" verbs I mean those verbs who express the movement in some way.. like.. "send" or "give (a present)"
                -If there is another complement marked with "ni" in the sentence, use "ni yotte" or "kara"

                この指輪は彼から私に送られた
                kono yubiwa wa kare kara watashi ni okurareta
                This ring has been given to me by him [指輪-->yubiwa-->ring 送る-->okuru-->to give]

                これは八月に彼の妻によって書かれた
                kore wa hachigatsu ni kare no tsuma ni yotte kakareta
                This has been written by his wife on August [八月-->hachigatsu-->August 妻-->tsuma-->wife

                If Y is an OBJECT:

                -if the object is concrete --->"ni"
                -if the object is abstract ---> "ni yotte"

                私のねこは車にひかれた
                watashi no neko wa kuruma ni hikareta
                My cat has been run over by a car

                彼は信仰によって救われた
                kare wa shinkou ni yotte sukuwareta
                He was saved by faith [信仰-->shinkou-->faith 救う-->sukuu-->to save]

                When the agent is clear due to the context, the active sentence is usually used instead of the passive one. Especially if the direct object of the active sentence (that would be the subject of the passive sentence) is an inanimate things and so unable to execute an action.
                But with historical, objective, economic or social facts/events the passive sentence is used without any problem

                英語は多くの国で勉強されています
                eigo wa ooku no kuni de benkyou sarete imasu
                English is being studied in many countries [多く-->ooku-->many 国-->kuni-->country]

                この曲はショペンによって作られました
                kono kyoku wa shopen ni yotte tsukuraremashita
                This music has been composed by Chopin [曲-->kyoku-->music/song]

                *If "Y" is the author, than you have to use "ni yotte"

                Passive to express harm, bother and annoyance

                The japanese passive sentence can also be used to express a meaning of harm, bother or annoyance caused to the subject by the agent of the passive sentence. In this case, the passive sentence can also be used with intransitive verbs.
                That's why it's really difficult to explain the meaning since there is nothing similar in english.. so there isn't a direct translation either..
                Let's see few examples:

                Active:
                ame ga futta----> It rained
                Passive:
                kare wa ame ni furareta----> It rained (and he was annoyed by it)

                Since "to rain" is an intransitive verb, the second passive sentence is impossibile to translate in english.. in this case you can translate it as if it was an active sentence, pointing out that the subject (in this case "he") was annoyed by that.

                Active:
                otto ga shinda----> My husband died
                Passive:
                otto ni shinareta----> My husband died (It's so terrible)

                Again, it's difficult to give a translation to the passive sentence. The meaning is that I was harmed by the death of my husband, I'm not only telling a fact.

                Active:
                iyana kyaku ga kita----> An unwelcome guest came
                Passive:
                iyana kyaku ni korareta----> It happened to me that an unwelcome guest came (and it sucks)

                Active:
                chichi wa boku no kanojo kara no tegami o yonda ----> My father read the letter from my girlfriend
                Passive:
                boku no kanojo kara no tegami wa chichi ni yomareta ----> The letter from my girlfriend was read by my dad
                Passive of harm/bother/annoyance:
                boku wa chichi ni kanojo kara no tegami o yomareta ---> It sucks that my father read the letter from my girlfriend

                Probably this last example is the one that can help you understanding the most since it's done with a transitive verb.. and you may see the real difference between a normal passive sentence and a this passive sentence of harm/bother/annoyance.
                The topic of the sentence becomes the one who is annoyed by what happened.. even if he isn't who is directly subjected to the action.

                "Jihatsu" expressions

                Japanese has a group of expressions called "jihatsu" (naturalness).
                These expressions are used for events, feelings or action that happens against or without human will. They are used for things that can't be controlled by men.

                X wa (N ga) V-rareru

                This structure is used with "sentimental" verbs:
                kanjiru (to feel/to sense/to notice)
                shinobu (to remember with nostalgia)
                anzuru (to be worried/concerned)
                shinpai suru (to be worried/concerned)
                odoruku (to be surprised)

                or with "thinking" verbs:
                kangaeru (to think)
                omou (to think)
                omoidasu (to remember)

                X is the person who feels/thinks
                N is what makes X feels/thinks

                母の健康が心配される
                haha no kenkou ga shinpai sareru
                I'm concerned about my mother's health

                最近、彼が冷たく感じられる
                saikin, kare ga tsumetaku kanjirareru
                Recently, I feel he is cold
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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #28 - Potential Forms - V-eru

                  Posted on 1 August, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 227 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

                  In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
                  Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

                  V-eru

                  V. Godan: B5-ru
                  V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
                  kuru: korareru
                  suru: dekiru

                  An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

                  Some examples:

                  kaku--->kakeru
                  iu--->ieru
                  hanasu--->hanaseru
                  tobu--->toberu
                  yomu--->yomeru
                  oyogu--...

                  Read more (315 words more)

                  In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
                  Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

                  V-eru

                  V. Godan: B5-ru
                  V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
                  kuru: korareru
                  suru: dekiru

                  An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

                  Some examples:

                  kaku--->kakeru
                  iu--->ieru
                  hanasu--->hanaseru
                  tobu--->toberu
                  yomu--->yomeru
                  oyogu--->oyogeru

                  deru--->derareru
                  okiru--->okirareru

                  You can conjugate the potential form of the verb. To do it, consider it just like a normal Ichidan verb in -eru

                  kaku--> write
                  kakeru--> can write
                  kakemasu--> can write (polite)
                  kakenai--> can't write
                  kakemasen--> can't write (polite)
                  kaketa--> could write
                  kakemashita--> could write (polite)
                  kakenakatta--> couldn't write
                  kakemasen deshita--> couldn't write (polite)
                  kekete--> -te potential form

                  It's like you attach the various auxiliary verbs to the B5 of the godan verbs instead the normal conjugated base they need

                  deru--> exit
                  derareru--> can exit
                  deraremasu--> can exit (polite)
                  derarenai--> can't exit
                  deraremasen--> can't exit (polite)
                  derareta--> could exit
                  deraremashita--> could exit (polite)
                  derarenakatta--> couldn't exit
                  deraremasen deshita--> couldn't exit (polite)
                  derarete--> -te potential form

                  X wa A ga V-eru

                  彼はパスタが作れます
                  kare wa pasuta ga tsukuremasu
                  He can make pasta

                  妹は昔ピアノがひけました
                  imouto wa mukashi piano ga hikemashita
                  Some time ago, my younger sister could play piano [昔-->mukashi-->old days]

                  それはこの図書館で調べられる
                  sore wa kono toshokan de shiraberareru
                  You can make research about that in this library [調べる-->shiraberu-->to research]

                  私はひらがなが書けますが漢字は書けません
                  watashi wa hiragana ga kakemasu ga kanji wa kakemasen
                  I can't write hiragana but not kanji

                  彼は卵が食べられません
                  kare wa tamago ga taberaremasen
                  He can't eat eggs

                  Also V-eru may mean "it's allowed, it's not allowed" depending on the context

                  ここははだしでは入れません
                  koko wa hadashi de wa hairemasen
                  It's not allowed to enter here barefoot [はだし-->hadashi-->barefoot]

                  Lately, in Japan, they started to get the potential form of ichidan verbs just as the godan verbs with "B5+ru" instead of "B1-rareru"but it's still considered colloquial:

                  base form----------B1-rareru-----------B5-ru
                  miru------------------mirareru-----------mireru
                  kiru-------------------kirareru------------kireru
                  taberu--------------taberareru--------tabereru
                  okiru-----------------okirareru----------okireru · close

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                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #27 - Potential Forms - Dekiru

                    Posted on 30 July, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 434 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                    In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

                    X wa A ga dekiru

                    X is the person who is able to do something
                    A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
                    dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

                    彼はイタリア語ができる
                    kare wa itariago dekiru
                    he knows italian (language)

                    あなたはバイオリンができますか
                    anata wa b...

                    Read more (491 words more)

                    In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

                    X wa A ga dekiru

                    X is the person who is able to do something
                    A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
                    dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

                    彼はイタリア語ができる
                    kare wa itariago dekiru
                    he knows italian (language)

                    あなたはバイオリンができますか
                    anata wa baiorin ga dekimasuka
                    can you play the violin?

                    みずきは日本の料理ができる
                    mizuki wa nihon no ryori ga dekiru
                    Mizuki can do japanese dishes

                    私はテニスができない
                    watashi wa tenisu ga dekinai
                    i can't play tennis

                    But this structure is not only used to express the ability (or not) to do something. In some contexts it may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed"

                    今日は雨でテニスができません
                    kyou wa ame de tenisu ga dekimasen
                    I can't play tennis today due to rain

                    X wa A o Verb(B4) koto ga dekiru

                    In the previous structure, there aren't other verbs except "dekiru". Only the activity is expressed.
                    This second structure is used to express also the verb togheter with the activity.

                    彼女はピアノをひくことができます
                    kanojo wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru
                    She can play the piano [ひく-->hiku-->to play]

                    彼は片手でタイプを打つことができる
                    kare wa katate de taipu o utsu koto ga dekiru
                    He can type with one hand [片手-->katate-->with one hand タイプを打つ-->taipu o utsu-->to type]

                    母はケーキをつくることができる
                    haha wa keeki o tsukuru koto ga dekiru
                    My mother can do cakes

                    When the verb is a composed verb with "suru" (e.g. shippai suru --> to fail), you can't use this structure cause you would repeat "dekiru" twice... so you have to use the previous one.. let's see an example with the verb "unten suru"-->to drive

                    酔っぱらっていては運転ができません
                    yobbaratte ite wa unten ga dekimasen
                    You can't drive if you are drunk [yobbaratte ite--> Being drunk]

                    Also this structure may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed" depending on the context.

                    この博物館では写真をとることができません
                    kono hakubutsukan de wa shashin o toru koto ga dekimasen
                    In this museum, it's not allowed to take photos [博物館-->hakubutsukan-->museum 写真-->shashin-->photo]

                    X wa A ga wakaru

                    This structure can be used with languages with the meaning of "X understand A"

                    彼はイタリア語がわかる
                    kare wa itariago ga wakaru
                    He understands italian (language)

                    あなたは日本語がわかりますか
                    anata wa nihongo ga wakarimasuka
                    do you understand japanese?

                    はい、少しわかります
                    hai, sukoshi wakarimasu
                    Yes, i understand a bit

                    いいえ、全然わかりません
                    iie, zenzen wakarimasen
                    no, I don't understand at all

                    X wa A ga jouzu/hata/tokui/nigate desu

                    This is a particular structure whose meaning change depending on which one of those 4 words you use:

                    X wa A ga jouzu desu --> X is good at A
                    X wa A ga hata desu --> X sucks at A
                    X wa A ga tokui desu --> X is good at A that he likes
                    X wa A ga nigate desu --> X sucks at A that he doesn't like

                    彼女は刺繍がじょうずだ
                    kanojo ga shishuu ga jouzu da
                    she is good at embroidery

                    この人は数学がにがてだ
                    kono hito wa suugaku ga nigate da
                    This man sucks at math and he doesn't like it

                    In the next lesson we'll see the potential form of the verb ^^ · close

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                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #26 - Permission and Advice

                      Posted on 28 July, 2011 (4 years ago) by DottDivine · 44 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                      Permission

                      V-te mo ii/kamawanai

                      This structure is used to ask and give the permission to do something. So it can be translated as "Can I...?" or "You can..."

                      ii is a normal I-Adjectives, but it's the only one that is irregular. In fact it derives from another adjective "yoi" that means "good" too and its declination is mostly taken from yoi's declination.
                      Anyway, in this context, you'll use it only in its plain form.....

                      Read more (594 words more)

                      Permission

                      V-te mo ii/kamawanai

                      This structure is used to ask and give the permission to do something. So it can be translated as "Can I...?" or "You can..."

                      ii is a normal I-Adjectives, but it's the only one that is irregular. In fact it derives from another adjective "yoi" that means "good" too and its declination is mostly taken from yoi's declination.
                      Anyway, in this context, you'll use it only in its plain form.. or in its polite form simply adding desu.

                      ここに座ってもいいですか
                      koko ni suwatte mo ii desuka
                      can I sit here?

                      possible answers:

                      はい、どうぞ
                      はい、いいです
                      いいえ、いけません
                      hai, douzo
                      hai, ii desu
                      iie, ikemasen
                      yes, please
                      yes, you can
                      no, you can't

                      電話を使ってもいいですか
                      denwa o tsukatte mo ii desuka
                      can i use the phone?

                      父は私に留学してもいいと言った
                      chichi wa watashi ni ryuugaku shite mo ii to itta
                      My father told me that i can study abroad [留学-->ryuugaku-->study abroad]

                      In the last sentence "v-te mo ii" is used to say "i can" in an indirect speech, but it's not possible to use it in a direct sentence.

                      "watashi wa ryuugaku shite mo ii desu" is NOT correct.

                      When you want to say "I can..." even if it has the meaning of "I'm allowed to.." you have to use one of the potential forms that we will see in the next lesson.

                      So for example: "I can study abroad" is "watashi wa ryuugaku dekiru"

                      Adjectives (in -te form) mo ii/kamawanai

                      With adjectives "mo ii/kamawanai" means "it's ok even if it's adjective" "I don't care if it's adjective"

                      壁の色は黄色でもいいですよ
                      kabe no iro wa kiirode mo ii desu yo
                      It's ok even if the wall is yellow [色-->iro-->color 黄-->ki-->yellow]

                      台所が小さくてもかまわない
                      daidokoro ga chiisakute mo kamawanai
                      I don't care if the kitchen is small

                      It's not necessary that.. / It's not needed that..

                      V-nakute mo ii/kamawanai
                      B4 hitsuyou wa nai

                      どうしても東京へ行かなければなりませんか
                      doushite mo toukyou e ikanakereba narimasenka
                      Do i really have to go to tokyo?

                      いいえ、いく必要はありません
                      iie, iku hitsuyou wa arimasen
                      No, it's not necessary

                      いいえ、行かなくてもいいです
                      iie, ikanakutemo ii desu
                      No, it's not necessary

                      気分が悪いなら来なくてもいいです
                      kibun ga warui nara konakute mo ii desu
                      If you don't feel well, it's not necessary that you come

                      Advice

                      Affermative: V-ta hou ga ii ---> "It's better if you..", "you better..", "you should.."
                      Negative: V-nai hou ga ii ---> "It's better if you don't.." "you better don't.." "you shouldn't.."

                      この家は売ったほうがいい
                      kono ie wa utta hou ga ii
                      It's better if you sell this house

                      あのドレスは買わないほうがいい
                      ano doresu wa kawanai hou ga ii
                      You shouldn't buy that dress

                      コーヒーは寝る前に飲まないほうがいいです
                      koohii wa neru mae ni nomanai hou ga ii
                      You better don't drink coffee before going to bed

                      彼は、日本語は難しいからやめたほうがいいと言う
                      kare wa nihongo wa muzukashii kara yameta hou ga ii to iu
                      He says, since japanese is diffcult, that it's better to give up

                      V-tara dou desuka

                      We already encountered it right? I remember you that this is used to push someone to do something.. "why don't you..." "you should.."

                      先生に話して見たらどうですか
                      sensei ni hanashite mitara dou desuka
                      why don't you try to speak to the teacher?

                      B4 + koto da

                      This is another way to give advices. It has the same meaning as "hou ga ii"

                      あまり安いものは買わないことだ
                      amari yasui mono wa kawanai koto da
                      It's better to do not buy things too cheap [あまり-->amari-->too much]

                      彼と結婚したくないならはっまり言うことだ
                      kare to kekkon shitakunai nara hammari iu koto da
                      If you don't want to marry him, you better tell him straight [結婚-->kekkon-->marriage はっまり-->hammari-->straight] · close

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