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DottDivine

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dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 5 years ago. He owns like 1,181 Jpops and was last seen here about 9 hours ago

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  • Let's Jap Together - Les. #33 - Guess/Uncert. - souda / kamo shirenai / hazu da

    Posted on 21 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 138 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

    After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

    souda / soudesu

    Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
    Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

    With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
    But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
    It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
    Let's look at this example:

    kono ringo wa oishi souda-...

    Read more (778 words more)

    After darou, rashii and youda.. we will see in this lesson other 3 ways to make a guess.

    souda / soudesu

    Verbs: B2 + souda/soudesu
    Adjectives: root + souda/soudesu

    With souda you can make a guess based on ocular observation. In other words, the guess is based on how something looks.
    But this guess can be made with adjectives that doesn't describe how the object looks.
    It seems complicated? Actually it's not.
    Let's look at this example:

    kono ringo wa oishi souda---> this apple looks delicious
    kono ringo wa ama souda---> this apple looks sweet
    kono ringo wa mazu souda---> this apple looks bad tasting
    kono ringo wa furu souda---> this apple looks old

    This sentence are all correct and they are made looking at the apple. The look of the apple makes the talker think that the apple may be "delicious" "sweet" "bad tasting" "old"

    You can't use souda with adjectives like "akai" (red) "ookii" (big) "marui" (rounded).. cause you are looking at the apple, so you can tell if it's red, big or rounded... you are not guessing.

    If it happens that you are far from the apple and you have to say "That apples seems red", you have to use youda or rashii --> "ano ringo wa akai youda"/"ano ringo wa akai rashii"

    Souda can also be used to make a guess on a future events that it seems they are going to happen soon. Also this guess is based on ocular observation.

    今にも雨が降りそうだ
    ima ni mo ame ga furi souda
    It looks like it's gonna rain soon

    このバスは止まりそうです
    kno basu wa tomari soudesu
    It seems that this bus is going to stop

    With potential verbs souda means "it looks like he can..." "it seems he can.."

    この車はまだ使えそうだ
    kono kuruma wa mada tsukae souda
    It looks like this car can still be used

    あの会社には入れそうではない
    ano kaisha ni wa haire soudewanai
    It seems i can't enter in that company

    Souda can be used in an attributive form and an adverbial form.
    The attributive form is "souna" while the adverbial is "souni"

    彼は高そうな車を買った
    kare wa taka souna kuruma o katta
    he bought a car that looks expensive

    彼はうれしそうに話した
    kare wa ureshi souni hanashita
    he spoke happily (he spoke in a way that looked happy)

    Now compre these sentences:

    ima ni mo ame ga furi souda --> It looks like is going to rain soon
    ame ga futte iru youda --> It seems it's raining (told by someone in direct contact with the rain)
    nihon de wa rokugatsu ni ame ga yoku furu youda (rashii) --> it seems that (i heard that) in japan it rains a lot on June
    tabun ashita ame ga furu darou --> It will probably rain tomorrow (subjective guess)

    kamo shirenai / kamo shiremasen

    Verbs: B4 + kamo shirenai
    I-Adjectives: B4 + kamo shirenai
    Na-Adjectives: Root + kamo shirenai
    Nouns: N + kamo shirenai

    With kamo shirenai you make a guess that is the most unsure among all the way we have seen. Who talks is not sure at all of what he is saying.

    私はいくかもしれないし行かないかもしれない
    watashi wa iku kamo shirenai shi ikanai kamo shirenai
    Maybe i'll go, maybe i won't go

    彼は音楽家かもしれない
    kare wa ongaguka kamo shirenai
    He may be a musician (but i'm not sure)

    Compare these sentences:

    kare wa kunai kamo shirenai --> Perhaps he won't come (i'm not sure)
    kare wa kunai darou --> He'll probably won't come
    kare wa kunai rashii --> I heard he won't come
    kare wa kunai youda --> It seems he won't come

    hazu da/desu

    Verbs: B4 + hazu da
    Adjectives: B4 + hazu da
    Nouns: N no hazu da

    This form means "It's supposed to.."
    In fact this is not normal guess, we are talking about something that we expect to happen or it should have already happened.

    彼は三時に駅に着くはずだ
    kare wa sanji ni eki ni tsuku hazu da
    He is supposed to arrive at the station at 3 o'clock

    授業はもう終わったはずだ
    jugyou wa mou owatta hazu da
    The lesson should have already finished

    The negative form of "hazu da" is "hazu ga (wa) nai"and it means "It's not possible that.."

    彼がそんなことを言うはずがない
    kare wa sonna koto o iu hazu ga nai
    It's not possible that he says something like that

    -ni chigai nai / -ni kimatte iru

    Even if this forms are still a guess, the talker is really sure of what he is saying. It means "No doubt that.." "It must..." "Surely..."

    彼が選ばれるにちがいない
    kare ga erabareru ni chigai nai
    No doubt that he will be elected

    そんなことをしたら先に叱られるにきまっている
    sonna koto o shitara sensei ni shikarareru ni kimatte iru
    If you do something like that, you'll surely be scolded by the teacher · close

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    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #32 - Guess/Uncertainty - rashii /youda

      Posted on 17 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 172 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

      Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

      rashii

      rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
      So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
      To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
      Just as darou/deshou, you have to ad...

      Read more (304 words more)

      Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

      rashii

      rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
      So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
      To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
      Just as darou/deshou, you have to add it at the end of the sentence to transform an affermative sentence into a guess.

      Verbs: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
      I-Adjectives: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
      Na-Adjectives: root + rashii/rashii desu
      Nouns: N+ rashii/rashii desu

      The negative guess can be made by both conjugating the verb of the sentence or conjugating rashii (rashikunai).


      あに人は山中さんらしい
      ano hito wa yamanaka-san rashii
      That man seems Yamanaka-san

      どろぼうもう出て行ったらしく、物音が止めた
      dorobou wa mou dete itta rashiku, monooto ga yameta
      It looks like the robber is already gone, the noises stopped

      あした鉄道はストで止まるらしいです
      ashita tetsudou wa suto de tomaru rashii desu
      I heard that the trains will stop tomorrow due to strike

      あの人は病気らしい
      ano hito wa byouki rashii
      As far as i know, that man is sick

      彼はみずきと結婚しないらしい
      kare wa mizuki to kekkon shinai rashii
      I heard that he won't marry Mizuki

      youda/youdesu

      Verbs: B4 + youda/youdesu
      I-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
      Na-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
      Nouns: N no youda/youdesu

      youda is used, just like rashii, to make a guessing with some foundation due to observation but it also add a psychological participation.
      He can be translated as "It seems.." "As far as i know.."

      父はもう帰ってきたようだ
      chichi wa mou kaette kita youda
      It seems my father is already returned

      雨が降っているようだった
      ame ga futte iru youdatta
      It seemed it was raining

      彼はダンススクールに通っているようだ
      kare wa dansu sukuuru ni kayotte iru youda
      As far as i know, he is attending a dance school

      火はもう消えたようです
      hi wa mou kieta youdesu
      It seems that the fire is already extinguished

      youda is also used to express subjective impressions and for guessing on your own behaviour

      その話は以前どこかで聞いたようだ
      sono hanashi wa izen dokoka de kiita youda
      I think i already heard this story somewhere [以前-->izen-->previously]

      私はま違っていたようだ
      watashi wa machigatte ita youda
      It seems i was wrong · close

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      • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #31 - Guess/Uncertainty - darou/deshou

        Posted on 15 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 86 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

        In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
        The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

        Darou / Deshou

        This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
        The...

        Read more (673 words more)

        In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
        The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

        Darou / Deshou

        This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
        The meaning is "I think that.." "Maybe..." "Perhaps.." "It may/might..."
        The structure is simple, you just have to add darou/deshou at the end of a sentence and they'll transform the affermative sentence into a guess.

        Verbs: B3 + darou/deshou
        I-Adj: B3 + darou/deshou
        Na-Adj: root + darou/deshou
        N: N + darou/deshou

        おそらく彼は今晩行くだろう
        osoraku kare wa konban iku darou
        He'll probably go tonight

        たぶん田中さんは映画に行かないだろう
        tabun tanaka-san wa eiga ni ikanai darou
        I think Tanaka-san doesn't go to the movies

        あの建物はたぶん学校だろう
        ano tatemono wa tabun gakkou darou
        That building is probably a school

        --The guess can also be done on past events:

        母はもう東京についたでしょう
        haha wa mou toukyou ni tsuita deshou
        I think my mother is already arrived in Tokyo

        --The guessing can be made involving the interlocutor using final particles as "ka" "ne" "yo" and "sa"
        With "ka" we make a guess asking for an aswer from the interlocutor
        With "ne" we make a guess asking for a confirmation from the interlocutor
        With "yo" and "sa" we are expressing the fact that even if it's a guessing we are confident on what we are saying.

        kare wa konban kuru deshou ka---> maybe he'll come tonight?
        kare wa konban kuru deshou ne---> maybe he'll come tonight, isn't it?
        kare wa konban kuru darou yo---> I'm quite sure he'll come tonight

        When the guessing is expressed in interrogative form, darou/deshou are used instead of the other way to express uncertainty. The guessing can be direct to an interlocutor or also to yourself.

        彼はまだあそこに住んでいるでしょうか
        kare wa mada asoko ni sunde iru deshou ka
        Do you know if he still live there?

        あしたも雪だろうか
        ashita mo yuki darou ka
        I wonder if it'll snow tomorrow too

        --When the guessing is made by a third person you have to use -to omotte iru (without darou/deshou)

        彼は私が頭がいいと思っている
        kare wa watashi ga atama ga ii to omotte iru
        He thinks I'm smart

        When the guessing was made in the past you have to use -to omotta

        私は彼がもう帰ってこたいだろうと思った
        watashi wa kare ga mou kaette konai darou to omotta
        I thought that he would have never come back

        --darou/deshou can be used in a conversation when who talks asks for a confirmation directly to the interlocutor with the meaning of "isn't it?"

        君はその本を彼にもう返しただろう
        kimi wa sono hon wo kare ni mou kaeshita darou
        You have probably already returned that book, isn't it?

        ほら、このセーターいいでしょう
        hora, kono seetaa ii deshou
        look, this sweater is nice, isn't it?

        --this structure has also an honorary form:

        Verbs: B2+ mashou/masudeshou
        Na-Adj: root + de arimashou
        N: N + de gozaimashou

        便利だから学生に喜ばれましょう
        benri da kare gakusei ni yorokobaremashou
        Since it's useful, it will probably be appreciated by the students

        たくさんのお金が必要でありましょう
        takusan no okane ga hitsuyou de arimashou
        A lot of money will probably be necessary [必要な-->hitsuyouna-->necessary]

        Literary expressions

        V-Godan: B1a + u
        Other verbs: B1 + you
        I-Adj: B1(-karo) + u
        Na-Adj: root + dearou
        N: N + dearou

        Negative: B3 + mai
        Emphatic Negative: B2 + wa shimai

        大臣は辞任するこのになろう
        daijin wa jinin suru koto ni narou
        I think the minister will resign [大臣-->daijin-->minister 辞任する-->jinin suru--> to resign]

        これは多くの反論が出てこよう
        kore wa ooku no hanron ga dete koyou
        About that, many opinion will probably come out [出て来る-->dete kuru-->To come out]

        コートがなければさぞ寒かろう
        kooto ga nakereba sazo samukarou
        If he doesn't have the coat, i'm sure he'll be cold [さぞ-->sazo-->surely]

        すぐにその問題を解決することが必要であろう
        sugu ni sono mondai o kaiketsu suru koto ga hitsuyou dearou
        It will probably be necessary to solve this problem immediately

        ドルはもうこれ以上下がるまい
        doru wa mou kore ijou sagarumai
        I don't think the dollar will go down anymore
        · close

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        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #30 - Causative

          Posted on 6 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 125 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

          Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

          E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

          V-Saseru

          V. Godan: B1+seru
          V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
          kuru: kosaseru
          suru: saseru

          Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

          kaku--->kakaseru
          iu--->iwaseru
          hanasu--->hanasaseru
          yomu--->yomaseru
          oyogu--->oyogaseru

          deru--->desaseru
          okiru--->okisaseru

          Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

          yomu-->...

          Read more (944 words more)

          Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

          E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

          V-Saseru

          V. Godan: B1+seru
          V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
          kuru: kosaseru
          suru: saseru

          Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

          kaku--->kakaseru
          iu--->iwaseru
          hanasu--->hanasaseru
          yomu--->yomaseru
          oyogu--->oyogaseru

          deru--->desaseru
          okiru--->okisaseru

          Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

          yomu-->read
          yomaseru--> make (someone) read
          yomasemasu--> make (someone) read (polite)
          yomasenai--> don't make (someone) read
          yomasemasen--> don't make (someone) read (polite)
          yomaseta--> made (someone) read
          yomasemashita--> made (someone) read (polite)
          yomasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) read
          yomasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) read
          yomasete--> -te form

          taberu--> eat
          tabesaseru--> make (someone) eat
          tabesasemasu--> make (someone) eat (polite)
          tabesasenai--> don't make (someone) eat
          tabesasemasen--> don't make (someone) eat (polite)
          tabesaseta--> made (someone) eat
          tabesasemashita--> made (someone) eat (polite)
          tabesasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) eat
          tabesasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) eat (polite)
          tabesasete--> -te form

          X wa Y ni N o V-Saseru ---> X make Y do N

          This is the structure of the causative sentence with transitive verbs

          母は妹に皿を洗わせた
          haha wa imouto ni sara o arawaseta
          My mother made my younger sister wash the dishes [皿-->sara-->dishes 洗う-->arau-->to wash]

          彼女に田中さんを飛行場まで送らせよう
          kanojo ni tanaka san o hikoujou made okuraseyou
          I'll make her accompany tanaka-san till the airport [飛行場-->hikoujou-->airport 送る-->okuru-->to send]

          The more complicated the sentence becomes, the most difficult is to make a literal translation. The translation of the last sentence in fact it's not. Sometime, you only have to understand the meaning and translate accordingly.

          X wa Y ni/o V-Saseru

          This is the structure of the causative sentence with intransitive verbs

          社長は彼に/をイタリアへ行かせた
          shachou wa kare ni/o itaria e ikaseta
          The president made him go to Italy

          どうして子供に/をプルで泳がせないのですか
          doushite kodomo ni/o puru de oyogasenai no desuka
          Why don't you make the kids swim in the pool?

          The japanese causative express the idea of "make someone do", "push someone to do" but also the idea of "allow someone to do" "leave someone to do"

          When it has the first meaning, it's like someone force someone else to do something. That's why is possibile, when "X" get an advantange by making "Y" doing something, to use the weakened form "-te morau"
          "Morau" means "to recieve" but as i already said, in japanese "give/receive" are quite complicate... and we'll see them later.. for the moment just remember this option and look at this example:

          私は田中さんに手紙を読ませた
          watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yomaseta
          I made tanaka read the letter

          私は田中さんに手紙を読んでもらった
          watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yonde moratta
          I asked tanaka to read the letter for me

          The second one is way more kind.

          In the next sentences the causative has the second meaning:

          もうおとななのだから、好きなようにさせましょう
          mou otona nano dakara, sukina youni sasemashou
          Since he is an adult already, let's leave him do what he likes

          Translating the causative as "make him do what he likes" is a contradiction.. so it's better "leave him do".. cause this is the true meaning.

          子供をここで遊ばせないでください
          kodomo o koko de asobasenaide kudasai
          Please, don't leave the kids play here

          In this sentence, "don't make the children play here" would be still acceptable, but you understand that it's not that you "push" the kids to play there.. it's more like you "leave" the kids play there.

          How to pick "ni" or "o"

          - If there is another complement marked with "ni" use "o" and viceversa
          - If Y is inanimate use "o"
          mizu o koraseru (make the water freeze)
          - If the verbs express a psycological reaction use "o"
          sensei o komaraseru (make the sensei embarassed)
          gakusei o warawaseru (make the students laugh)

          Intransitive verbs that have a transitive version

          Do you remember those intransitive verbs that also have a corresponding transitive version? no? I talked about them in lesson #16 ^^
          Well, for those verbs, the causative form of the intransitive verbs has similar meaning of the transitive verb. So the transitive verb is generally used.

          neru-->to sleep
          nekasu--> to put to sleep

          kodomo ga neru ---> the kid sleeps
          kodomo o neraseru ---> I make the kid sleep (causative of neru)
          kodomo o nekasu ---> I put the kid to sleep

          noru--> to get on
          noseru--> to make someone get on

          haha ga kisha ni noru ---> my mother get on the train
          haha o kisha ni noraseru --->I make my mother get on the train (causative of noru)
          haha o kisha ni noseru ---> I make my mother get on the train

          In both cases, the last sentence is used, even if the meaning may be slightly different

          V-sasu

          This is another way to make a verb causative. But this is used only in oral japanese, it's considered really colloquial.

          V. Godan: B1+su
          V. Ichidan: B1+sasu
          kuru: kosasu
          suru: sasu

          Some examples:

          kaku--->kakasu
          iu--->iwasu
          hanasu--->hanasasu
          yomu--->yomasu
          oyogu--->oyogasu

          deru--->desasu
          okiru--->okisasu

          This causative form is conjugated like a godan verb endin in -su.
          I don't conjugate it right now cause the lesson is already sooo long :D

          All what i said for V-saseru is still valid for V-sasu too.. so i just make a pair of examples.

          彼に本当のことを言わしましょう
          kare ni hontou no koto o iwashimashou
          Lets make him tell the truth

          彼にこれを作らしてください
          kare ni kore o tsukurashite kudasai
          Make him do this please

          · close

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          • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #29 - Passive

            Posted on 4 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 73 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

            Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

            V-rareru

            V. Godan: B1+reru
            V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
            kuru: korareru
            suru: sareru

            No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
            Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
            This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

            Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

            kaku--->kakar...

            Read more (1167 words more)

            Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

            V-rareru

            V. Godan: B1+reru
            V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
            kuru: korareru
            suru: sareru

            No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
            Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
            This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

            Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

            kaku--->kakareru
            iu--->iwareru
            yomu--->yomareru
            kiru(to cut)--->kirareru
            katsu--->katareru

            taberu--->taberareru
            kiru(to wear)--->kirareru

            As the potential form, also the passive form of the verb can be conjugated like a normal ichidan verb in -eru.

            yomu--> read
            yomareru--> is read
            yomaremasu--> is read (polite)
            yomarenai--> isn't read
            yomaremasen--> isn't read (polite)
            yomareta--> was read
            yomaremashita--> was read (polite)
            yomarenakatta--> wasn't read
            yomaremasen deshita--> wasn't read (polite)
            yomarete--> -te form

            suteru--> throw
            suterareru--> is thrown
            suteraremasu--> is thrown (polite)
            suterarenai--> isn't thrown
            suteraremasen--> isn't thrown (polite)
            suterareta--> was thrown
            suteraremashita--> was thrown (polite)
            suterarenakatta--> wasn't thrown
            suteraremasen deshita--> wasn't thrown (polite)
            suterarete--> -te form

            X wa Y ni/ni yotte/kara V-rareru

            This is the structure of the passive sentence.
            X is who is subjected to the action
            Y is the agent complement who does the action

            Active sentence:
            父は兄を殴った
            chichi wa ani o nagutta
            My father beat my older brother (兄-->ani-->older brother 殴る-->naguru-->to beat]

            Passive sentence:
            兄は父に殴られた
            ani wa chichi ni nagurareta
            My older brother was beaten by my father

            山田さんの財布はすりに盗まれた
            yamada-san no saifu wa suri ni nusumareta
            Yamada's wallet was robbed by a pickpocket [財布-->saifu-->wallet すり-->suri-->pickpocket 盗む-->nusumu-->to steal]

            そんなことをすると先生に叱られますよ
            sonna koto o suru to sensei ni shikararemasu yo
            If you do something like that, you'll be scolded by the teacher [叱る-->shikaru-->to scold]

            when to use "ni", "ni yotte" or "kara" to mark the agent complement

            Usually "ni" is used, but there are sentences where is better to use the others.

            If Y is a PERSON:

            -Usually---> "ni"
            -With "directional" verbs you can use "kara" but also "ni". With "directional" verbs I mean those verbs who express the movement in some way.. like.. "send" or "give (a present)"
            -If there is another complement marked with "ni" in the sentence, use "ni yotte" or "kara"

            この指輪は彼から私に送られた
            kono yubiwa wa kare kara watashi ni okurareta
            This ring has been given to me by him [指輪-->yubiwa-->ring 送る-->okuru-->to give]

            これは八月に彼の妻によって書かれた
            kore wa hachigatsu ni kare no tsuma ni yotte kakareta
            This has been written by his wife on August [八月-->hachigatsu-->August 妻-->tsuma-->wife

            If Y is an OBJECT:

            -if the object is concrete --->"ni"
            -if the object is abstract ---> "ni yotte"

            私のねこは車にひかれた
            watashi no neko wa kuruma ni hikareta
            My cat has been run over by a car

            彼は信仰によって救われた
            kare wa shinkou ni yotte sukuwareta
            He was saved by faith [信仰-->shinkou-->faith 救う-->sukuu-->to save]

            When the agent is clear due to the context, the active sentence is usually used instead of the passive one. Especially if the direct object of the active sentence (that would be the subject of the passive sentence) is an inanimate things and so unable to execute an action.
            But with historical, objective, economic or social facts/events the passive sentence is used without any problem

            英語は多くの国で勉強されています
            eigo wa ooku no kuni de benkyou sarete imasu
            English is being studied in many countries [多く-->ooku-->many 国-->kuni-->country]

            この曲はショペンによって作られました
            kono kyoku wa shopen ni yotte tsukuraremashita
            This music has been composed by Chopin [曲-->kyoku-->music/song]

            *If "Y" is the author, than you have to use "ni yotte"

            Passive to express harm, bother and annoyance

            The japanese passive sentence can also be used to express a meaning of harm, bother or annoyance caused to the subject by the agent of the passive sentence. In this case, the passive sentence can also be used with intransitive verbs.
            That's why it's really difficult to explain the meaning since there is nothing similar in english.. so there isn't a direct translation either..
            Let's see few examples:

            Active:
            ame ga futta----> It rained
            Passive:
            kare wa ame ni furareta----> It rained (and he was annoyed by it)

            Since "to rain" is an intransitive verb, the second passive sentence is impossibile to translate in english.. in this case you can translate it as if it was an active sentence, pointing out that the subject (in this case "he") was annoyed by that.

            Active:
            otto ga shinda----> My husband died
            Passive:
            otto ni shinareta----> My husband died (It's so terrible)

            Again, it's difficult to give a translation to the passive sentence. The meaning is that I was harmed by the death of my husband, I'm not only telling a fact.

            Active:
            iyana kyaku ga kita----> An unwelcome guest came
            Passive:
            iyana kyaku ni korareta----> It happened to me that an unwelcome guest came (and it sucks)

            Active:
            chichi wa boku no kanojo kara no tegami o yonda ----> My father read the letter from my girlfriend
            Passive:
            boku no kanojo kara no tegami wa chichi ni yomareta ----> The letter from my girlfriend was read by my dad
            Passive of harm/bother/annoyance:
            boku wa chichi ni kanojo kara no tegami o yomareta ---> It sucks that my father read the letter from my girlfriend

            Probably this last example is the one that can help you understanding the most since it's done with a transitive verb.. and you may see the real difference between a normal passive sentence and a this passive sentence of harm/bother/annoyance.
            The topic of the sentence becomes the one who is annoyed by what happened.. even if he isn't who is directly subjected to the action.

            "Jihatsu" expressions

            Japanese has a group of expressions called "jihatsu" (naturalness).
            These expressions are used for events, feelings or action that happens against or without human will. They are used for things that can't be controlled by men.

            X wa (N ga) V-rareru

            This structure is used with "sentimental" verbs:
            kanjiru (to feel/to sense/to notice)
            shinobu (to remember with nostalgia)
            anzuru (to be worried/concerned)
            shinpai suru (to be worried/concerned)
            odoruku (to be surprised)

            or with "thinking" verbs:
            kangaeru (to think)
            omou (to think)
            omoidasu (to remember)

            X is the person who feels/thinks
            N is what makes X feels/thinks

            母の健康が心配される
            haha no kenkou ga shinpai sareru
            I'm concerned about my mother's health

            最近、彼が冷たく感じられる
            saikin, kare ga tsumetaku kanjirareru
            Recently, I feel he is cold
            · close

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            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #28 - Potential Forms - V-eru

              Posted on 1 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 227 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

              In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
              Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

              V-eru

              V. Godan: B5-ru
              V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
              kuru: korareru
              suru: dekiru

              An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

              Some examples:

              kaku--->kakeru
              iu--->ieru
              hanasu--->hanaseru
              tobu--->toberu
              yomu--->yomeru
              oyogu--...

              Read more (315 words more)

              In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
              Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

              V-eru

              V. Godan: B5-ru
              V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
              kuru: korareru
              suru: dekiru

              An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

              Some examples:

              kaku--->kakeru
              iu--->ieru
              hanasu--->hanaseru
              tobu--->toberu
              yomu--->yomeru
              oyogu--->oyogeru

              deru--->derareru
              okiru--->okirareru

              You can conjugate the potential form of the verb. To do it, consider it just like a normal Ichidan verb in -eru

              kaku--> write
              kakeru--> can write
              kakemasu--> can write (polite)
              kakenai--> can't write
              kakemasen--> can't write (polite)
              kaketa--> could write
              kakemashita--> could write (polite)
              kakenakatta--> couldn't write
              kakemasen deshita--> couldn't write (polite)
              kekete--> -te potential form

              It's like you attach the various auxiliary verbs to the B5 of the godan verbs instead the normal conjugated base they need

              deru--> exit
              derareru--> can exit
              deraremasu--> can exit (polite)
              derarenai--> can't exit
              deraremasen--> can't exit (polite)
              derareta--> could exit
              deraremashita--> could exit (polite)
              derarenakatta--> couldn't exit
              deraremasen deshita--> couldn't exit (polite)
              derarete--> -te potential form

              X wa A ga V-eru

              彼はパスタが作れます
              kare wa pasuta ga tsukuremasu
              He can make pasta

              妹は昔ピアノがひけました
              imouto wa mukashi piano ga hikemashita
              Some time ago, my younger sister could play piano [昔-->mukashi-->old days]

              それはこの図書館で調べられる
              sore wa kono toshokan de shiraberareru
              You can make research about that in this library [調べる-->shiraberu-->to research]

              私はひらがなが書けますが漢字は書けません
              watashi wa hiragana ga kakemasu ga kanji wa kakemasen
              I can't write hiragana but not kanji

              彼は卵が食べられません
              kare wa tamago ga taberaremasen
              He can't eat eggs

              Also V-eru may mean "it's allowed, it's not allowed" depending on the context

              ここははだしでは入れません
              koko wa hadashi de wa hairemasen
              It's not allowed to enter here barefoot [はだし-->hadashi-->barefoot]

              Lately, in Japan, they started to get the potential form of ichidan verbs just as the godan verbs with "B5+ru" instead of "B1-rareru"but it's still considered colloquial:

              base form----------B1-rareru-----------B5-ru
              miru------------------mirareru-----------mireru
              kiru-------------------kirareru------------kireru
              taberu--------------taberareru--------tabereru
              okiru-----------------okirareru----------okireru · close

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              • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #27 - Potential Forms - Dekiru

                Posted on 30 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 434 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

                X wa A ga dekiru

                X is the person who is able to do something
                A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
                dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

                彼はイタリア語ができる
                kare wa itariago dekiru
                he knows italian (language)

                あなたはバイオリンができますか
                anata wa b...

                Read more (491 words more)

                In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

                X wa A ga dekiru

                X is the person who is able to do something
                A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
                dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

                彼はイタリア語ができる
                kare wa itariago dekiru
                he knows italian (language)

                あなたはバイオリンができますか
                anata wa baiorin ga dekimasuka
                can you play the violin?

                みずきは日本の料理ができる
                mizuki wa nihon no ryori ga dekiru
                Mizuki can do japanese dishes

                私はテニスができない
                watashi wa tenisu ga dekinai
                i can't play tennis

                But this structure is not only used to express the ability (or not) to do something. In some contexts it may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed"

                今日は雨でテニスができません
                kyou wa ame de tenisu ga dekimasen
                I can't play tennis today due to rain

                X wa A o Verb(B4) koto ga dekiru

                In the previous structure, there aren't other verbs except "dekiru". Only the activity is expressed.
                This second structure is used to express also the verb togheter with the activity.

                彼女はピアノをひくことができます
                kanojo wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru
                She can play the piano [ひく-->hiku-->to play]

                彼は片手でタイプを打つことができる
                kare wa katate de taipu o utsu koto ga dekiru
                He can type with one hand [片手-->katate-->with one hand タイプを打つ-->taipu o utsu-->to type]

                母はケーキをつくることができる
                haha wa keeki o tsukuru koto ga dekiru
                My mother can do cakes

                When the verb is a composed verb with "suru" (e.g. shippai suru --> to fail), you can't use this structure cause you would repeat "dekiru" twice... so you have to use the previous one.. let's see an example with the verb "unten suru"-->to drive

                酔っぱらっていては運転ができません
                yobbaratte ite wa unten ga dekimasen
                You can't drive if you are drunk [yobbaratte ite--> Being drunk]

                Also this structure may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed" depending on the context.

                この博物館では写真をとることができません
                kono hakubutsukan de wa shashin o toru koto ga dekimasen
                In this museum, it's not allowed to take photos [博物館-->hakubutsukan-->museum 写真-->shashin-->photo]

                X wa A ga wakaru

                This structure can be used with languages with the meaning of "X understand A"

                彼はイタリア語がわかる
                kare wa itariago ga wakaru
                He understands italian (language)

                あなたは日本語がわかりますか
                anata wa nihongo ga wakarimasuka
                do you understand japanese?

                はい、少しわかります
                hai, sukoshi wakarimasu
                Yes, i understand a bit

                いいえ、全然わかりません
                iie, zenzen wakarimasen
                no, I don't understand at all

                X wa A ga jouzu/hata/tokui/nigate desu

                This is a particular structure whose meaning change depending on which one of those 4 words you use:

                X wa A ga jouzu desu --> X is good at A
                X wa A ga hata desu --> X sucks at A
                X wa A ga tokui desu --> X is good at A that he likes
                X wa A ga nigate desu --> X sucks at A that he doesn't like

                彼女は刺繍がじょうずだ
                kanojo ga shishuu ga jouzu da
                she is good at embroidery

                この人は数学がにがてだ
                kono hito wa suugaku ga nigate da
                This man sucks at math and he doesn't like it

                In the next lesson we'll see the potential form of the verb ^^ · close

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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #26 - Permission and Advice

                  Posted on 28 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 44 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                  Permission

                  V-te mo ii/kamawanai

                  This structure is used to ask and give the permission to do something. So it can be translated as "Can I...?" or "You can..."

                  ii is a normal I-Adjectives, but it's the only one that is irregular. In fact it derives from another adjective "yoi" that means "good" too and its declination is mostly taken from yoi's declination.
                  Anyway, in this context, you'll use it only in its plain form.....

                  Read more (594 words more)

                  Permission

                  V-te mo ii/kamawanai

                  This structure is used to ask and give the permission to do something. So it can be translated as "Can I...?" or "You can..."

                  ii is a normal I-Adjectives, but it's the only one that is irregular. In fact it derives from another adjective "yoi" that means "good" too and its declination is mostly taken from yoi's declination.
                  Anyway, in this context, you'll use it only in its plain form.. or in its polite form simply adding desu.

                  ここに座ってもいいですか
                  koko ni suwatte mo ii desuka
                  can I sit here?

                  possible answers:

                  はい、どうぞ
                  はい、いいです
                  いいえ、いけません
                  hai, douzo
                  hai, ii desu
                  iie, ikemasen
                  yes, please
                  yes, you can
                  no, you can't

                  電話を使ってもいいですか
                  denwa o tsukatte mo ii desuka
                  can i use the phone?

                  父は私に留学してもいいと言った
                  chichi wa watashi ni ryuugaku shite mo ii to itta
                  My father told me that i can study abroad [留学-->ryuugaku-->study abroad]

                  In the last sentence "v-te mo ii" is used to say "i can" in an indirect speech, but it's not possible to use it in a direct sentence.

                  "watashi wa ryuugaku shite mo ii desu" is NOT correct.

                  When you want to say "I can..." even if it has the meaning of "I'm allowed to.." you have to use one of the potential forms that we will see in the next lesson.

                  So for example: "I can study abroad" is "watashi wa ryuugaku dekiru"

                  Adjectives (in -te form) mo ii/kamawanai

                  With adjectives "mo ii/kamawanai" means "it's ok even if it's adjective" "I don't care if it's adjective"

                  壁の色は黄色でもいいですよ
                  kabe no iro wa kiirode mo ii desu yo
                  It's ok even if the wall is yellow [色-->iro-->color 黄-->ki-->yellow]

                  台所が小さくてもかまわない
                  daidokoro ga chiisakute mo kamawanai
                  I don't care if the kitchen is small

                  It's not necessary that.. / It's not needed that..

                  V-nakute mo ii/kamawanai
                  B4 hitsuyou wa nai

                  どうしても東京へ行かなければなりませんか
                  doushite mo toukyou e ikanakereba narimasenka
                  Do i really have to go to tokyo?

                  いいえ、いく必要はありません
                  iie, iku hitsuyou wa arimasen
                  No, it's not necessary

                  いいえ、行かなくてもいいです
                  iie, ikanakutemo ii desu
                  No, it's not necessary

                  気分が悪いなら来なくてもいいです
                  kibun ga warui nara konakute mo ii desu
                  If you don't feel well, it's not necessary that you come

                  Advice

                  Affermative: V-ta hou ga ii ---> "It's better if you..", "you better..", "you should.."
                  Negative: V-nai hou ga ii ---> "It's better if you don't.." "you better don't.." "you shouldn't.."

                  この家は売ったほうがいい
                  kono ie wa utta hou ga ii
                  It's better if you sell this house

                  あのドレスは買わないほうがいい
                  ano doresu wa kawanai hou ga ii
                  You shouldn't buy that dress

                  コーヒーは寝る前に飲まないほうがいいです
                  koohii wa neru mae ni nomanai hou ga ii
                  You better don't drink coffee before going to bed

                  彼は、日本語は難しいからやめたほうがいいと言う
                  kare wa nihongo wa muzukashii kara yameta hou ga ii to iu
                  He says, since japanese is diffcult, that it's better to give up

                  V-tara dou desuka

                  We already encountered it right? I remember you that this is used to push someone to do something.. "why don't you..." "you should.."

                  先生に話して見たらどうですか
                  sensei ni hanashite mitara dou desuka
                  why don't you try to speak to the teacher?

                  B4 + koto da

                  This is another way to give advices. It has the same meaning as "hou ga ii"

                  あまり安いものは買わないことだ
                  amari yasui mono wa kawanai koto da
                  It's better to do not buy things too cheap [あまり-->amari-->too much]

                  彼と結婚したくないならはっまり言うことだ
                  kare to kekkon shitakunai nara hammari iu koto da
                  If you don't want to marry him, you better tell him straight [結婚-->kekkon-->marriage はっまり-->hammari-->straight] · close

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                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #25 - Obligation and Prohibition

                    Posted on 27 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 50 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

                    Obligation

                    The first structure we will see expresses an absolute necessity to do something.
                    In other words, it represents what in english is "must" and "have to"

                    Verb(B1) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                    I-Adj(B2-ku) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                    Na-Adj(B2-de) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai

                    The use of "nakereba" or "nakutewa" is up to you.

                    私は働かなければならない
                    watashi wa hatarakanakereba naranai
                    ...

                    Read more (586 words more)

                    Obligation

                    The first structure we will see expresses an absolute necessity to do something.
                    In other words, it represents what in english is "must" and "have to"

                    Verb(B1) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                    I-Adj(B2-ku) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                    Na-Adj(B2-de) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai

                    The use of "nakereba" or "nakutewa" is up to you.

                    私は働かなければならない
                    watashi wa hatarakanakereba naranai
                    I have to work [働く-->hataraku-->to work]

                    you can conjugate"naranai" just as the auxiliary -nai:

                    あの日はどうしても家になくてはならなかった
                    ano hi wa doushite mo ie ni nakutewa naranakatta
                    That day, I absolutely had to stay at home

                    And you can use it in polite form too:

                    男は強くなければなりません
                    otoko wa tsuyoku nakereba narimasen
                    Men have to be strong

                    When the subject is in 2nd person, it's more common to use "ikenai" instead of "naranai"

                    あしたは彼に謝らなければいけない
                    ashita wa kare no ayamaranakereba ikenai
                    Tomorrow, you have to apologize to him [謝る-->ayamaru-->to apologize]

                    急いで行かなくてはいけない
                    isoide ikanakutewa ikenai
                    You must go in a hurry. [急いで-->isoide-->in a hurry]

                    "ikenai" has a conversational variant "dame da"

                    それはどうしても言わなければだめだ
                    sore wa doushite mo iwanakereba dame da
                    You absolutely have to tell that

                    Also "nakereba" and "nakutewa" have conversational variants "nakerya" "nakya" "nakucha"

                    父は助けなきゃならなかった
                    chichi wa tasukenakya naranakatta
                    I had to help my father

                    ***"nakereba" and "nakute wa" are just "nai" conjugated in its conditional form and -te form respectively. That's why they are attached to verbs' B1 and adjectives' B2.

                    B3 beki da

                    With this structure you express moral obligation. You can translate it with "must" or "have to" anyway, but with the meaning of "it's right/correct/appropriate"

                    あなたは彼にそれを話すべきだ
                    anata wa kare ni sore o hanasu beki da
                    You have to talk to him about that. (implied meaning--> "cause it's the right thing to do")

                    Conjugating "da" you can get past and negative form.

                    若い時にもっと勉強しておくべきだった
                    wakai toki ni motto benkyou shite oku beki datta
                    I should have studied more when i was young [若い-->wakai-->young 時-->toki-->time, used in temporal clause]

                    親にそんなことを言うべきではない
                    oya ni sonna koto o iu beki dewanai
                    you shouldn't tell that kind of things to parents

                    As you see, only "da" is conjugated while the verb that express the action is always in its plain form.

                    Prohibition

                    V-te wa naranai/ikenai

                    This is used to express thing you don't have to do, so you can translate it with "don't have to" must not" but also "can't".
                    Again, "ikenai" can be changed with its conversational form "dame da"

                    図書館でタバコをすってはならない
                    toshokan de tabako o sutte wa naranai
                    you must not smoke in the library

                    決して彼に秘密を漏らしてはいけない
                    kesshite kare ni himitsu o morashite wa ikenai
                    You don't have to reveal the secret to him [秘密-->himitsu-->secret 漏らす-->morasu-->reveal]

                    言ってはいけないことを言ってしまった
                    itte wa ikenai koto o itte shimatta
                    I ended up saying things i should have not said

                    Adjectives (in -te form) wa ikenai

                    With adjectives you can use this structure. it means "it must not be adjective" or also "it can't be adjectives".

                    あした着る服は明るくてはいけません
                    ashita kiru fuku wa akarukute wa ikemasen
                    The clothes you'll wear tomorrow mustn't be bright

                    病院は不潔ではいけない
                    byouin wa fuketsude wa ikenai
                    An hospital can't be dirty

                    Some prohibitions you'll find if you go to Japan ^^

                    禁煙--->kin'en---> NO smoking
                    駐車禁止--->chushakinshi---> NO parking
                    面会を禁ず--->menkai o kinzu---> NO visit allowed
                    芝生にはいるべからず--->shibafu ni wa iru bekarazu--> Keep off the grass · close

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                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #24 - Request

                      Posted on 26 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 139 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                      In this lesson we will see how to ask people to do something without being considered rude or impolite.

                      V-te kudasai

                      This is the most versatile form of request. It's polite enough to be used with everyone, even the first time you meet them.

                      そこで待ってください 
                      soko de matte kudasai
                      Wait there please

                      部屋に入てください
                      heya ni haite kudasai
                      Enter in the room please

                      You may guess how it is the negative form.. try to make your guess.. if you are...

                      Read more (244 words more)

                      In this lesson we will see how to ask people to do something without being considered rude or impolite.

                      V-te kudasai

                      This is the most versatile form of request. It's polite enough to be used with everyone, even the first time you meet them.

                      そこで待ってください 
                      soko de matte kudasai
                      Wait there please

                      部屋に入てください
                      heya ni haite kudasai
                      Enter in the room please

                      You may guess how it is the negative form.. try to make your guess.. if you are right, you already have a japanese mind :D

                      B1-naide kudasai

                      Yeah, you just have to use the negative V-te form, using the negative auxiliary -nai, conjugating it into its -te form "naide" and attaching it to the conjugated base that is used with "nai".. B1 as always.

                      花をふまないでください
                      hana o fumanaide kudasai
                      Do not step on the flowers please

                      絵にふれないでください
                      e ni furenaide kudasai
                      Don't touch the paintings please

                      V-te kure

                      kure is simply the plain form of kudasai, so it has same meaning and it's used the same way. The only difference is that it's not polite as kudasai, so it may be used only among friends or with an inferior person.

                      その話は止めてくれ
                      sono hanashi wa yamete kure
                      Stop telling that story please

                      Obviously, the negative form is B1-naide kure

                      怒らないでくれ
                      okoranaide kure
                      don't get angry please

                      There is no problem if you use V-te kure in indirect speech, cause, as always, it doesn't affect the politeness of the sentence.

                      お金を貸してくれとたのまれた
                      okane o kashite kure to tanomareta
                      He asked me to lend him some money

                      Other expression of request

                      V-te kure tamae: Used by men with inferiors
                      V-te okure: Used by parents with kids or masters with servants
                      V-te choudai: Used by women with friends or inferiors
                      V-te ne/yo: used by women with firends, by kids with relatives, among friends · close

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