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DottDivine

With my nieceeeeee
dottdivine

DottDivine is a man who signed up 5 years ago. He owns like 971 Jpops and was last seen here about 5 hours ago

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  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #32 - Guess/Uncertainty - rashii /youda

    Posted on 17 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 134 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

    Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

    rashii

    rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
    So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
    To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
    Just as darou/deshou, you have to ad...

    Read more (304 words more)

    Here the second way to make a guess or express uncertainty in japanese

    rashii

    rashii is used to make a guess with some foundations due to observation of the situation or cause you heard something from an external source like TV, newspaper or another person.
    So its meaning is "It seems that..." "As far as i know..." "It looks like..." "I heard that.."
    To conjugate rashii, consider it like an I-Adjectives.
    Just as darou/deshou, you have to add it at the end of the sentence to transform an affermative sentence into a guess.

    Verbs: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
    I-Adjectives: B3 + rashii/rashii desu
    Na-Adjectives: root + rashii/rashii desu
    Nouns: N+ rashii/rashii desu

    The negative guess can be made by both conjugating the verb of the sentence or conjugating rashii (rashikunai).


    あに人は山中さんらしい
    ano hito wa yamanaka-san rashii
    That man seems Yamanaka-san

    どろぼうもう出て行ったらしく、物音が止めた
    dorobou wa mou dete itta rashiku, monooto ga yameta
    It looks like the robber is already gone, the noises stopped

    あした鉄道はストで止まるらしいです
    ashita tetsudou wa suto de tomaru rashii desu
    I heard that the trains will stop tomorrow due to strike

    あの人は病気らしい
    ano hito wa byouki rashii
    As far as i know, that man is sick

    彼はみずきと結婚しないらしい
    kare wa mizuki to kekkon shinai rashii
    I heard that he won't marry Mizuki

    youda/youdesu

    Verbs: B4 + youda/youdesu
    I-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
    Na-Adjectives: B4 + youda/youdesu
    Nouns: N no youda/youdesu

    youda is used, just like rashii, to make a guessing with some foundation due to observation but it also add a psychological participation.
    He can be translated as "It seems.." "As far as i know.."

    父はもう帰ってきたようだ
    chichi wa mou kaette kita youda
    It seems my father is already returned

    雨が降っているようだった
    ame ga futte iru youdatta
    It seemed it was raining

    彼はダンススクールに通っているようだ
    kare wa dansu sukuuru ni kayotte iru youda
    As far as i know, he is attending a dance school

    火はもう消えたようです
    hi wa mou kieta youdesu
    It seems that the fire is already extinguished

    youda is also used to express subjective impressions and for guessing on your own behaviour

    その話は以前どこかで聞いたようだ
    sono hanashi wa izen dokoka de kiita youda
    I think i already heard this story somewhere [以前-->izen-->previously]

    私はま違っていたようだ
    watashi wa machigatte ita youda
    It seems i was wrong · close

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    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #31 - Guess/Uncertainty - darou/deshou

      Posted on 15 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 86 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

      In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
      The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

      Darou / Deshou

      This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
      The...

      Read more (673 words more)

      In japanese there are many way to make a guess or say something that is not sure.
      The choice among them depends on how uncertain is what we are saying and other factors.

      Darou / Deshou

      This is probably the most simple way to express uncertainty. It's used to make a guess without any particular foundation. It's often used with adverbs that means "maybe" like "tabun" or "osoraku" but this structure express uncertainty even without those adverbs.
      The meaning is "I think that.." "Maybe..." "Perhaps.." "It may/might..."
      The structure is simple, you just have to add darou/deshou at the end of a sentence and they'll transform the affermative sentence into a guess.

      Verbs: B3 + darou/deshou
      I-Adj: B3 + darou/deshou
      Na-Adj: root + darou/deshou
      N: N + darou/deshou

      おそらく彼は今晩行くだろう
      osoraku kare wa konban iku darou
      He'll probably go tonight

      たぶん田中さんは映画に行かないだろう
      tabun tanaka-san wa eiga ni ikanai darou
      I think Tanaka-san doesn't go to the movies

      あの建物はたぶん学校だろう
      ano tatemono wa tabun gakkou darou
      That building is probably a school

      --The guess can also be done on past events:

      母はもう東京についたでしょう
      haha wa mou toukyou ni tsuita deshou
      I think my mother is already arrived in Tokyo

      --The guessing can be made involving the interlocutor using final particles as "ka" "ne" "yo" and "sa"
      With "ka" we make a guess asking for an aswer from the interlocutor
      With "ne" we make a guess asking for a confirmation from the interlocutor
      With "yo" and "sa" we are expressing the fact that even if it's a guessing we are confident on what we are saying.

      kare wa konban kuru deshou ka---> maybe he'll come tonight?
      kare wa konban kuru deshou ne---> maybe he'll come tonight, isn't it?
      kare wa konban kuru darou yo---> I'm quite sure he'll come tonight

      When the guessing is expressed in interrogative form, darou/deshou are used instead of the other way to express uncertainty. The guessing can be direct to an interlocutor or also to yourself.

      彼はまだあそこに住んでいるでしょうか
      kare wa mada asoko ni sunde iru deshou ka
      Do you know if he still live there?

      あしたも雪だろうか
      ashita mo yuki darou ka
      I wonder if it'll snow tomorrow too

      --When the guessing is made by a third person you have to use -to omotte iru (without darou/deshou)

      彼は私が頭がいいと思っている
      kare wa watashi ga atama ga ii to omotte iru
      He thinks I'm smart

      When the guessing was made in the past you have to use -to omotta

      私は彼がもう帰ってこたいだろうと思った
      watashi wa kare ga mou kaette konai darou to omotta
      I thought that he would have never come back

      --darou/deshou can be used in a conversation when who talks asks for a confirmation directly to the interlocutor with the meaning of "isn't it?"

      君はその本を彼にもう返しただろう
      kimi wa sono hon wo kare ni mou kaeshita darou
      You have probably already returned that book, isn't it?

      ほら、このセーターいいでしょう
      hora, kono seetaa ii deshou
      look, this sweater is nice, isn't it?

      --this structure has also an honorary form:

      Verbs: B2+ mashou/masudeshou
      Na-Adj: root + de arimashou
      N: N + de gozaimashou

      便利だから学生に喜ばれましょう
      benri da kare gakusei ni yorokobaremashou
      Since it's useful, it will probably be appreciated by the students

      たくさんのお金が必要でありましょう
      takusan no okane ga hitsuyou de arimashou
      A lot of money will probably be necessary [必要な-->hitsuyouna-->necessary]

      Literary expressions

      V-Godan: B1a + u
      Other verbs: B1 + you
      I-Adj: B1(-karo) + u
      Na-Adj: root + dearou
      N: N + dearou

      Negative: B3 + mai
      Emphatic Negative: B2 + wa shimai

      大臣は辞任するこのになろう
      daijin wa jinin suru koto ni narou
      I think the minister will resign [大臣-->daijin-->minister 辞任する-->jinin suru--> to resign]

      これは多くの反論が出てこよう
      kore wa ooku no hanron ga dete koyou
      About that, many opinion will probably come out [出て来る-->dete kuru-->To come out]

      コートがなければさぞ寒かろう
      kooto ga nakereba sazo samukarou
      If he doesn't have the coat, i'm sure he'll be cold [さぞ-->sazo-->surely]

      すぐにその問題を解決することが必要であろう
      sugu ni sono mondai o kaiketsu suru koto ga hitsuyou dearou
      It will probably be necessary to solve this problem immediately

      ドルはもうこれ以上下がるまい
      doru wa mou kore ijou sagarumai
      I don't think the dollar will go down anymore
      · close

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      • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #30 - Causative

        Posted on 6 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 125 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

        Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

        E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

        V-Saseru

        V. Godan: B1+seru
        V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
        kuru: kosaseru
        suru: saseru

        Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

        kaku--->kakaseru
        iu--->iwaseru
        hanasu--->hanasaseru
        yomu--->yomaseru
        oyogu--->oyogaseru

        deru--->desaseru
        okiru--->okisaseru

        Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

        yomu-->...

        Read more (944 words more)

        Causative is when someone makes someone else do something.

        E.g.---> My mother made me clean the kitchen

        V-Saseru

        V. Godan: B1+seru
        V. Ichidan: B1+saseru
        kuru: kosaseru
        suru: saseru

        Some examples of verbs in their causative form:

        kaku--->kakaseru
        iu--->iwaseru
        hanasu--->hanasaseru
        yomu--->yomaseru
        oyogu--->oyogaseru

        deru--->desaseru
        okiru--->okisaseru

        Once again, you can conjugate this verbs as normal ichidan verbs in -eru:

        yomu-->read
        yomaseru--> make (someone) read
        yomasemasu--> make (someone) read (polite)
        yomasenai--> don't make (someone) read
        yomasemasen--> don't make (someone) read (polite)
        yomaseta--> made (someone) read
        yomasemashita--> made (someone) read (polite)
        yomasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) read
        yomasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) read
        yomasete--> -te form

        taberu--> eat
        tabesaseru--> make (someone) eat
        tabesasemasu--> make (someone) eat (polite)
        tabesasenai--> don't make (someone) eat
        tabesasemasen--> don't make (someone) eat (polite)
        tabesaseta--> made (someone) eat
        tabesasemashita--> made (someone) eat (polite)
        tabesasenakatta--> didn't make (someone) eat
        tabesasemasen deshita--> didn't make (someone) eat (polite)
        tabesasete--> -te form

        X wa Y ni N o V-Saseru ---> X make Y do N

        This is the structure of the causative sentence with transitive verbs

        母は妹に皿を洗わせた
        haha wa imouto ni sara o arawaseta
        My mother made my younger sister wash the dishes [皿-->sara-->dishes 洗う-->arau-->to wash]

        彼女に田中さんを飛行場まで送らせよう
        kanojo ni tanaka san o hikoujou made okuraseyou
        I'll make her accompany tanaka-san till the airport [飛行場-->hikoujou-->airport 送る-->okuru-->to send]

        The more complicated the sentence becomes, the most difficult is to make a literal translation. The translation of the last sentence in fact it's not. Sometime, you only have to understand the meaning and translate accordingly.

        X wa Y ni/o V-Saseru

        This is the structure of the causative sentence with intransitive verbs

        社長は彼に/をイタリアへ行かせた
        shachou wa kare ni/o itaria e ikaseta
        The president made him go to Italy

        どうして子供に/をプルで泳がせないのですか
        doushite kodomo ni/o puru de oyogasenai no desuka
        Why don't you make the kids swim in the pool?

        The japanese causative express the idea of "make someone do", "push someone to do" but also the idea of "allow someone to do" "leave someone to do"

        When it has the first meaning, it's like someone force someone else to do something. That's why is possibile, when "X" get an advantange by making "Y" doing something, to use the weakened form "-te morau"
        "Morau" means "to recieve" but as i already said, in japanese "give/receive" are quite complicate... and we'll see them later.. for the moment just remember this option and look at this example:

        私は田中さんに手紙を読ませた
        watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yomaseta
        I made tanaka read the letter

        私は田中さんに手紙を読んでもらった
        watashi wa tanaka-san ni tegami o yonde moratta
        I asked tanaka to read the letter for me

        The second one is way more kind.

        In the next sentences the causative has the second meaning:

        もうおとななのだから、好きなようにさせましょう
        mou otona nano dakara, sukina youni sasemashou
        Since he is an adult already, let's leave him do what he likes

        Translating the causative as "make him do what he likes" is a contradiction.. so it's better "leave him do".. cause this is the true meaning.

        子供をここで遊ばせないでください
        kodomo o koko de asobasenaide kudasai
        Please, don't leave the kids play here

        In this sentence, "don't make the children play here" would be still acceptable, but you understand that it's not that you "push" the kids to play there.. it's more like you "leave" the kids play there.

        How to pick "ni" or "o"

        - If there is another complement marked with "ni" use "o" and viceversa
        - If Y is inanimate use "o"
        mizu o koraseru (make the water freeze)
        - If the verbs express a psycological reaction use "o"
        sensei o komaraseru (make the sensei embarassed)
        gakusei o warawaseru (make the students laugh)

        Intransitive verbs that have a transitive version

        Do you remember those intransitive verbs that also have a corresponding transitive version? no? I talked about them in lesson #16 ^^
        Well, for those verbs, the causative form of the intransitive verbs has similar meaning of the transitive verb. So the transitive verb is generally used.

        neru-->to sleep
        nekasu--> to put to sleep

        kodomo ga neru ---> the kid sleeps
        kodomo o neraseru ---> I make the kid sleep (causative of neru)
        kodomo o nekasu ---> I put the kid to sleep

        noru--> to get on
        noseru--> to make someone get on

        haha ga kisha ni noru ---> my mother get on the train
        haha o kisha ni noraseru --->I make my mother get on the train (causative of noru)
        haha o kisha ni noseru ---> I make my mother get on the train

        In both cases, the last sentence is used, even if the meaning may be slightly different

        V-sasu

        This is another way to make a verb causative. But this is used only in oral japanese, it's considered really colloquial.

        V. Godan: B1+su
        V. Ichidan: B1+sasu
        kuru: kosasu
        suru: sasu

        Some examples:

        kaku--->kakasu
        iu--->iwasu
        hanasu--->hanasasu
        yomu--->yomasu
        oyogu--->oyogasu

        deru--->desasu
        okiru--->okisasu

        This causative form is conjugated like a godan verb endin in -su.
        I don't conjugate it right now cause the lesson is already sooo long :D

        All what i said for V-saseru is still valid for V-sasu too.. so i just make a pair of examples.

        彼に本当のことを言わしましょう
        kare ni hontou no koto o iwashimashou
        Lets make him tell the truth

        彼にこれを作らしてください
        kare ni kore o tsukurashite kudasai
        Make him do this please

        · close

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        • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #29 - Passive

          Posted on 4 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 73 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

          Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

          V-rareru

          V. Godan: B1+reru
          V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
          kuru: korareru
          suru: sareru

          No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
          Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
          This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

          Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

          kaku--->kakar...

          Read more (1167 words more)

          Passive in japanese can be expressed using the passive form of the verbs

          V-rareru

          V. Godan: B1+reru
          V. Ichidan: B1+rareru
          kuru: korareru
          suru: sareru

          No guys, it's not a mistake :D Potential and passive form for ichidan verbs... is the same -_-
          Like it's not confusing enough, isn't it? ^^ And btw, for kuru too :D
          This is probably the reason why japanese are starting to use B5-ru for potential form? ^^

          Here some examples of verbs in their passive form:

          kaku--->kakareru
          iu--->iwareru
          yomu--->yomareru
          kiru(to cut)--->kirareru
          katsu--->katareru

          taberu--->taberareru
          kiru(to wear)--->kirareru

          As the potential form, also the passive form of the verb can be conjugated like a normal ichidan verb in -eru.

          yomu--> read
          yomareru--> is read
          yomaremasu--> is read (polite)
          yomarenai--> isn't read
          yomaremasen--> isn't read (polite)
          yomareta--> was read
          yomaremashita--> was read (polite)
          yomarenakatta--> wasn't read
          yomaremasen deshita--> wasn't read (polite)
          yomarete--> -te form

          suteru--> throw
          suterareru--> is thrown
          suteraremasu--> is thrown (polite)
          suterarenai--> isn't thrown
          suteraremasen--> isn't thrown (polite)
          suterareta--> was thrown
          suteraremashita--> was thrown (polite)
          suterarenakatta--> wasn't thrown
          suteraremasen deshita--> wasn't thrown (polite)
          suterarete--> -te form

          X wa Y ni/ni yotte/kara V-rareru

          This is the structure of the passive sentence.
          X is who is subjected to the action
          Y is the agent complement who does the action

          Active sentence:
          父は兄を殴った
          chichi wa ani o nagutta
          My father beat my older brother (兄-->ani-->older brother 殴る-->naguru-->to beat]

          Passive sentence:
          兄は父に殴られた
          ani wa chichi ni nagurareta
          My older brother was beaten by my father

          山田さんの財布はすりに盗まれた
          yamada-san no saifu wa suri ni nusumareta
          Yamada's wallet was robbed by a pickpocket [財布-->saifu-->wallet すり-->suri-->pickpocket 盗む-->nusumu-->to steal]

          そんなことをすると先生に叱られますよ
          sonna koto o suru to sensei ni shikararemasu yo
          If you do something like that, you'll be scolded by the teacher [叱る-->shikaru-->to scold]

          when to use "ni", "ni yotte" or "kara" to mark the agent complement

          Usually "ni" is used, but there are sentences where is better to use the others.

          If Y is a PERSON:

          -Usually---> "ni"
          -With "directional" verbs you can use "kara" but also "ni". With "directional" verbs I mean those verbs who express the movement in some way.. like.. "send" or "give (a present)"
          -If there is another complement marked with "ni" in the sentence, use "ni yotte" or "kara"

          この指輪は彼から私に送られた
          kono yubiwa wa kare kara watashi ni okurareta
          This ring has been given to me by him [指輪-->yubiwa-->ring 送る-->okuru-->to give]

          これは八月に彼の妻によって書かれた
          kore wa hachigatsu ni kare no tsuma ni yotte kakareta
          This has been written by his wife on August [八月-->hachigatsu-->August 妻-->tsuma-->wife

          If Y is an OBJECT:

          -if the object is concrete --->"ni"
          -if the object is abstract ---> "ni yotte"

          私のねこは車にひかれた
          watashi no neko wa kuruma ni hikareta
          My cat has been run over by a car

          彼は信仰によって救われた
          kare wa shinkou ni yotte sukuwareta
          He was saved by faith [信仰-->shinkou-->faith 救う-->sukuu-->to save]

          When the agent is clear due to the context, the active sentence is usually used instead of the passive one. Especially if the direct object of the active sentence (that would be the subject of the passive sentence) is an inanimate things and so unable to execute an action.
          But with historical, objective, economic or social facts/events the passive sentence is used without any problem

          英語は多くの国で勉強されています
          eigo wa ooku no kuni de benkyou sarete imasu
          English is being studied in many countries [多く-->ooku-->many 国-->kuni-->country]

          この曲はショペンによって作られました
          kono kyoku wa shopen ni yotte tsukuraremashita
          This music has been composed by Chopin [曲-->kyoku-->music/song]

          *If "Y" is the author, than you have to use "ni yotte"

          Passive to express harm, bother and annoyance

          The japanese passive sentence can also be used to express a meaning of harm, bother or annoyance caused to the subject by the agent of the passive sentence. In this case, the passive sentence can also be used with intransitive verbs.
          That's why it's really difficult to explain the meaning since there is nothing similar in english.. so there isn't a direct translation either..
          Let's see few examples:

          Active:
          ame ga futta----> It rained
          Passive:
          kare wa ame ni furareta----> It rained (and he was annoyed by it)

          Since "to rain" is an intransitive verb, the second passive sentence is impossibile to translate in english.. in this case you can translate it as if it was an active sentence, pointing out that the subject (in this case "he") was annoyed by that.

          Active:
          otto ga shinda----> My husband died
          Passive:
          otto ni shinareta----> My husband died (It's so terrible)

          Again, it's difficult to give a translation to the passive sentence. The meaning is that I was harmed by the death of my husband, I'm not only telling a fact.

          Active:
          iyana kyaku ga kita----> An unwelcome guest came
          Passive:
          iyana kyaku ni korareta----> It happened to me that an unwelcome guest came (and it sucks)

          Active:
          chichi wa boku no kanojo kara no tegami o yonda ----> My father read the letter from my girlfriend
          Passive:
          boku no kanojo kara no tegami wa chichi ni yomareta ----> The letter from my girlfriend was read by my dad
          Passive of harm/bother/annoyance:
          boku wa chichi ni kanojo kara no tegami o yomareta ---> It sucks that my father read the letter from my girlfriend

          Probably this last example is the one that can help you understanding the most since it's done with a transitive verb.. and you may see the real difference between a normal passive sentence and a this passive sentence of harm/bother/annoyance.
          The topic of the sentence becomes the one who is annoyed by what happened.. even if he isn't who is directly subjected to the action.

          "Jihatsu" expressions

          Japanese has a group of expressions called "jihatsu" (naturalness).
          These expressions are used for events, feelings or action that happens against or without human will. They are used for things that can't be controlled by men.

          X wa (N ga) V-rareru

          This structure is used with "sentimental" verbs:
          kanjiru (to feel/to sense/to notice)
          shinobu (to remember with nostalgia)
          anzuru (to be worried/concerned)
          shinpai suru (to be worried/concerned)
          odoruku (to be surprised)

          or with "thinking" verbs:
          kangaeru (to think)
          omou (to think)
          omoidasu (to remember)

          X is the person who feels/thinks
          N is what makes X feels/thinks

          母の健康が心配される
          haha no kenkou ga shinpai sareru
          I'm concerned about my mother's health

          最近、彼が冷たく感じられる
          saikin, kare ga tsumetaku kanjirareru
          Recently, I feel he is cold
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          • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #28 - Potential Forms - V-eru

            Posted on 1 August, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 227 views · 1 comments · 0 likes

            In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
            Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

            V-eru

            V. Godan: B5-ru
            V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
            kuru: korareru
            suru: dekiru

            An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

            Some examples:

            kaku--->kakeru
            iu--->ieru
            hanasu--->hanaseru
            tobu--->toberu
            yomu--->yomeru
            oyogu--...

            Read more (315 words more)

            In the last lesson we studied one way to say "I can" in japanese: dekiru.
            Now it's time per the second one: the potential form of the verb.

            V-eru

            V. Godan: B5-ru
            V. Ichidan: B1-rareru
            kuru: korareru
            suru: dekiru

            An easier way to get potential form of godan verbs is to simply change the final -u with -eru. The final result will be the same.

            Some examples:

            kaku--->kakeru
            iu--->ieru
            hanasu--->hanaseru
            tobu--->toberu
            yomu--->yomeru
            oyogu--->oyogeru

            deru--->derareru
            okiru--->okirareru

            You can conjugate the potential form of the verb. To do it, consider it just like a normal Ichidan verb in -eru

            kaku--> write
            kakeru--> can write
            kakemasu--> can write (polite)
            kakenai--> can't write
            kakemasen--> can't write (polite)
            kaketa--> could write
            kakemashita--> could write (polite)
            kakenakatta--> couldn't write
            kakemasen deshita--> couldn't write (polite)
            kekete--> -te potential form

            It's like you attach the various auxiliary verbs to the B5 of the godan verbs instead the normal conjugated base they need

            deru--> exit
            derareru--> can exit
            deraremasu--> can exit (polite)
            derarenai--> can't exit
            deraremasen--> can't exit (polite)
            derareta--> could exit
            deraremashita--> could exit (polite)
            derarenakatta--> couldn't exit
            deraremasen deshita--> couldn't exit (polite)
            derarete--> -te potential form

            X wa A ga V-eru

            彼はパスタが作れます
            kare wa pasuta ga tsukuremasu
            He can make pasta

            妹は昔ピアノがひけました
            imouto wa mukashi piano ga hikemashita
            Some time ago, my younger sister could play piano [昔-->mukashi-->old days]

            それはこの図書館で調べられる
            sore wa kono toshokan de shiraberareru
            You can make research about that in this library [調べる-->shiraberu-->to research]

            私はひらがなが書けますが漢字は書けません
            watashi wa hiragana ga kakemasu ga kanji wa kakemasen
            I can't write hiragana but not kanji

            彼は卵が食べられません
            kare wa tamago ga taberaremasen
            He can't eat eggs

            Also V-eru may mean "it's allowed, it's not allowed" depending on the context

            ここははだしでは入れません
            koko wa hadashi de wa hairemasen
            It's not allowed to enter here barefoot [はだし-->hadashi-->barefoot]

            Lately, in Japan, they started to get the potential form of ichidan verbs just as the godan verbs with "B5+ru" instead of "B1-rareru"but it's still considered colloquial:

            base form----------B1-rareru-----------B5-ru
            miru------------------mirareru-----------mireru
            kiru-------------------kirareru------------kireru
            taberu--------------taberareru--------tabereru
            okiru-----------------okirareru----------okireru · close

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            • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #27 - Potential Forms - Dekiru

              Posted on 30 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 434 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

              In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

              X wa A ga dekiru

              X is the person who is able to do something
              A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
              dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

              彼はイタリア語ができる
              kare wa itariago dekiru
              he knows italian (language)

              あなたはバイオリンができますか
              anata wa b...

              Read more (491 words more)

              In this lesson we are going to see how to express the capability to do something in japanese.

              X wa A ga dekiru

              X is the person who is able to do something
              A is something that requires some skills like a language, a sport or a musical instruments.
              dekiru is the potential form of the verb "suru" so it means by itself "can do"

              彼はイタリア語ができる
              kare wa itariago dekiru
              he knows italian (language)

              あなたはバイオリンができますか
              anata wa baiorin ga dekimasuka
              can you play the violin?

              みずきは日本の料理ができる
              mizuki wa nihon no ryori ga dekiru
              Mizuki can do japanese dishes

              私はテニスができない
              watashi wa tenisu ga dekinai
              i can't play tennis

              But this structure is not only used to express the ability (or not) to do something. In some contexts it may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed"

              今日は雨でテニスができません
              kyou wa ame de tenisu ga dekimasen
              I can't play tennis today due to rain

              X wa A o Verb(B4) koto ga dekiru

              In the previous structure, there aren't other verbs except "dekiru". Only the activity is expressed.
              This second structure is used to express also the verb togheter with the activity.

              彼女はピアノをひくことができます
              kanojo wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru
              She can play the piano [ひく-->hiku-->to play]

              彼は片手でタイプを打つことができる
              kare wa katate de taipu o utsu koto ga dekiru
              He can type with one hand [片手-->katate-->with one hand タイプを打つ-->taipu o utsu-->to type]

              母はケーキをつくることができる
              haha wa keeki o tsukuru koto ga dekiru
              My mother can do cakes

              When the verb is a composed verb with "suru" (e.g. shippai suru --> to fail), you can't use this structure cause you would repeat "dekiru" twice... so you have to use the previous one.. let's see an example with the verb "unten suru"-->to drive

              酔っぱらっていては運転ができません
              yobbaratte ite wa unten ga dekimasen
              You can't drive if you are drunk [yobbaratte ite--> Being drunk]

              Also this structure may have the meaning of "allowed/not allowed" depending on the context.

              この博物館では写真をとることができません
              kono hakubutsukan de wa shashin o toru koto ga dekimasen
              In this museum, it's not allowed to take photos [博物館-->hakubutsukan-->museum 写真-->shashin-->photo]

              X wa A ga wakaru

              This structure can be used with languages with the meaning of "X understand A"

              彼はイタリア語がわかる
              kare wa itariago ga wakaru
              He understands italian (language)

              あなたは日本語がわかりますか
              anata wa nihongo ga wakarimasuka
              do you understand japanese?

              はい、少しわかります
              hai, sukoshi wakarimasu
              Yes, i understand a bit

              いいえ、全然わかりません
              iie, zenzen wakarimasen
              no, I don't understand at all

              X wa A ga jouzu/hata/tokui/nigate desu

              This is a particular structure whose meaning change depending on which one of those 4 words you use:

              X wa A ga jouzu desu --> X is good at A
              X wa A ga hata desu --> X sucks at A
              X wa A ga tokui desu --> X is good at A that he likes
              X wa A ga nigate desu --> X sucks at A that he doesn't like

              彼女は刺繍がじょうずだ
              kanojo ga shishuu ga jouzu da
              she is good at embroidery

              この人は数学がにがてだ
              kono hito wa suugaku ga nigate da
              This man sucks at math and he doesn't like it

              In the next lesson we'll see the potential form of the verb ^^ · close

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              • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #26 - Permission and Advice

                Posted on 28 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 44 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                Permission

                V-te mo ii/kamawanai

                This structure is used to ask and give the permission to do something. So it can be translated as "Can I...?" or "You can..."

                ii is a normal I-Adjectives, but it's the only one that is irregular. In fact it derives from another adjective "yoi" that means "good" too and its declination is mostly taken from yoi's declination.
                Anyway, in this context, you'll use it only in its plain form.....

                Read more (594 words more)

                Permission

                V-te mo ii/kamawanai

                This structure is used to ask and give the permission to do something. So it can be translated as "Can I...?" or "You can..."

                ii is a normal I-Adjectives, but it's the only one that is irregular. In fact it derives from another adjective "yoi" that means "good" too and its declination is mostly taken from yoi's declination.
                Anyway, in this context, you'll use it only in its plain form.. or in its polite form simply adding desu.

                ここに座ってもいいですか
                koko ni suwatte mo ii desuka
                can I sit here?

                possible answers:

                はい、どうぞ
                はい、いいです
                いいえ、いけません
                hai, douzo
                hai, ii desu
                iie, ikemasen
                yes, please
                yes, you can
                no, you can't

                電話を使ってもいいですか
                denwa o tsukatte mo ii desuka
                can i use the phone?

                父は私に留学してもいいと言った
                chichi wa watashi ni ryuugaku shite mo ii to itta
                My father told me that i can study abroad [留学-->ryuugaku-->study abroad]

                In the last sentence "v-te mo ii" is used to say "i can" in an indirect speech, but it's not possible to use it in a direct sentence.

                "watashi wa ryuugaku shite mo ii desu" is NOT correct.

                When you want to say "I can..." even if it has the meaning of "I'm allowed to.." you have to use one of the potential forms that we will see in the next lesson.

                So for example: "I can study abroad" is "watashi wa ryuugaku dekiru"

                Adjectives (in -te form) mo ii/kamawanai

                With adjectives "mo ii/kamawanai" means "it's ok even if it's adjective" "I don't care if it's adjective"

                壁の色は黄色でもいいですよ
                kabe no iro wa kiirode mo ii desu yo
                It's ok even if the wall is yellow [色-->iro-->color 黄-->ki-->yellow]

                台所が小さくてもかまわない
                daidokoro ga chiisakute mo kamawanai
                I don't care if the kitchen is small

                It's not necessary that.. / It's not needed that..

                V-nakute mo ii/kamawanai
                B4 hitsuyou wa nai

                どうしても東京へ行かなければなりませんか
                doushite mo toukyou e ikanakereba narimasenka
                Do i really have to go to tokyo?

                いいえ、いく必要はありません
                iie, iku hitsuyou wa arimasen
                No, it's not necessary

                いいえ、行かなくてもいいです
                iie, ikanakutemo ii desu
                No, it's not necessary

                気分が悪いなら来なくてもいいです
                kibun ga warui nara konakute mo ii desu
                If you don't feel well, it's not necessary that you come

                Advice

                Affermative: V-ta hou ga ii ---> "It's better if you..", "you better..", "you should.."
                Negative: V-nai hou ga ii ---> "It's better if you don't.." "you better don't.." "you shouldn't.."

                この家は売ったほうがいい
                kono ie wa utta hou ga ii
                It's better if you sell this house

                あのドレスは買わないほうがいい
                ano doresu wa kawanai hou ga ii
                You shouldn't buy that dress

                コーヒーは寝る前に飲まないほうがいいです
                koohii wa neru mae ni nomanai hou ga ii
                You better don't drink coffee before going to bed

                彼は、日本語は難しいからやめたほうがいいと言う
                kare wa nihongo wa muzukashii kara yameta hou ga ii to iu
                He says, since japanese is diffcult, that it's better to give up

                V-tara dou desuka

                We already encountered it right? I remember you that this is used to push someone to do something.. "why don't you..." "you should.."

                先生に話して見たらどうですか
                sensei ni hanashite mitara dou desuka
                why don't you try to speak to the teacher?

                B4 + koto da

                This is another way to give advices. It has the same meaning as "hou ga ii"

                あまり安いものは買わないことだ
                amari yasui mono wa kawanai koto da
                It's better to do not buy things too cheap [あまり-->amari-->too much]

                彼と結婚したくないならはっまり言うことだ
                kare to kekkon shitakunai nara hammari iu koto da
                If you don't want to marry him, you better tell him straight [結婚-->kekkon-->marriage はっまり-->hammari-->straight] · close

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                • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #25 - Obligation and Prohibition

                  Posted on 27 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 50 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

                  Obligation

                  The first structure we will see expresses an absolute necessity to do something.
                  In other words, it represents what in english is "must" and "have to"

                  Verb(B1) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                  I-Adj(B2-ku) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                  Na-Adj(B2-de) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai

                  The use of "nakereba" or "nakutewa" is up to you.

                  私は働かなければならない
                  watashi wa hatarakanakereba naranai
                  ...

                  Read more (586 words more)

                  Obligation

                  The first structure we will see expresses an absolute necessity to do something.
                  In other words, it represents what in english is "must" and "have to"

                  Verb(B1) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                  I-Adj(B2-ku) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai
                  Na-Adj(B2-de) -nakereba/-nakutewa naranai

                  The use of "nakereba" or "nakutewa" is up to you.

                  私は働かなければならない
                  watashi wa hatarakanakereba naranai
                  I have to work [働く-->hataraku-->to work]

                  you can conjugate"naranai" just as the auxiliary -nai:

                  あの日はどうしても家になくてはならなかった
                  ano hi wa doushite mo ie ni nakutewa naranakatta
                  That day, I absolutely had to stay at home

                  And you can use it in polite form too:

                  男は強くなければなりません
                  otoko wa tsuyoku nakereba narimasen
                  Men have to be strong

                  When the subject is in 2nd person, it's more common to use "ikenai" instead of "naranai"

                  あしたは彼に謝らなければいけない
                  ashita wa kare no ayamaranakereba ikenai
                  Tomorrow, you have to apologize to him [謝る-->ayamaru-->to apologize]

                  急いで行かなくてはいけない
                  isoide ikanakutewa ikenai
                  You must go in a hurry. [急いで-->isoide-->in a hurry]

                  "ikenai" has a conversational variant "dame da"

                  それはどうしても言わなければだめだ
                  sore wa doushite mo iwanakereba dame da
                  You absolutely have to tell that

                  Also "nakereba" and "nakutewa" have conversational variants "nakerya" "nakya" "nakucha"

                  父は助けなきゃならなかった
                  chichi wa tasukenakya naranakatta
                  I had to help my father

                  ***"nakereba" and "nakute wa" are just "nai" conjugated in its conditional form and -te form respectively. That's why they are attached to verbs' B1 and adjectives' B2.

                  B3 beki da

                  With this structure you express moral obligation. You can translate it with "must" or "have to" anyway, but with the meaning of "it's right/correct/appropriate"

                  あなたは彼にそれを話すべきだ
                  anata wa kare ni sore o hanasu beki da
                  You have to talk to him about that. (implied meaning--> "cause it's the right thing to do")

                  Conjugating "da" you can get past and negative form.

                  若い時にもっと勉強しておくべきだった
                  wakai toki ni motto benkyou shite oku beki datta
                  I should have studied more when i was young [若い-->wakai-->young 時-->toki-->time, used in temporal clause]

                  親にそんなことを言うべきではない
                  oya ni sonna koto o iu beki dewanai
                  you shouldn't tell that kind of things to parents

                  As you see, only "da" is conjugated while the verb that express the action is always in its plain form.

                  Prohibition

                  V-te wa naranai/ikenai

                  This is used to express thing you don't have to do, so you can translate it with "don't have to" must not" but also "can't".
                  Again, "ikenai" can be changed with its conversational form "dame da"

                  図書館でタバコをすってはならない
                  toshokan de tabako o sutte wa naranai
                  you must not smoke in the library

                  決して彼に秘密を漏らしてはいけない
                  kesshite kare ni himitsu o morashite wa ikenai
                  You don't have to reveal the secret to him [秘密-->himitsu-->secret 漏らす-->morasu-->reveal]

                  言ってはいけないことを言ってしまった
                  itte wa ikenai koto o itte shimatta
                  I ended up saying things i should have not said

                  Adjectives (in -te form) wa ikenai

                  With adjectives you can use this structure. it means "it must not be adjective" or also "it can't be adjectives".

                  あした着る服は明るくてはいけません
                  ashita kiru fuku wa akarukute wa ikemasen
                  The clothes you'll wear tomorrow mustn't be bright

                  病院は不潔ではいけない
                  byouin wa fuketsude wa ikenai
                  An hospital can't be dirty

                  Some prohibitions you'll find if you go to Japan ^^

                  禁煙--->kin'en---> NO smoking
                  駐車禁止--->chushakinshi---> NO parking
                  面会を禁ず--->menkai o kinzu---> NO visit allowed
                  芝生にはいるべからず--->shibafu ni wa iru bekarazu--> Keep off the grass · close

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                  • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #24 - Request

                    Posted on 26 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 139 views · 0 comments · 0 likes

                    In this lesson we will see how to ask people to do something without being considered rude or impolite.

                    V-te kudasai

                    This is the most versatile form of request. It's polite enough to be used with everyone, even the first time you meet them.

                    そこで待ってください 
                    soko de matte kudasai
                    Wait there please

                    部屋に入てください
                    heya ni haite kudasai
                    Enter in the room please

                    You may guess how it is the negative form.. try to make your guess.. if you are...

                    Read more (244 words more)

                    In this lesson we will see how to ask people to do something without being considered rude or impolite.

                    V-te kudasai

                    This is the most versatile form of request. It's polite enough to be used with everyone, even the first time you meet them.

                    そこで待ってください 
                    soko de matte kudasai
                    Wait there please

                    部屋に入てください
                    heya ni haite kudasai
                    Enter in the room please

                    You may guess how it is the negative form.. try to make your guess.. if you are right, you already have a japanese mind :D

                    B1-naide kudasai

                    Yeah, you just have to use the negative V-te form, using the negative auxiliary -nai, conjugating it into its -te form "naide" and attaching it to the conjugated base that is used with "nai".. B1 as always.

                    花をふまないでください
                    hana o fumanaide kudasai
                    Do not step on the flowers please

                    絵にふれないでください
                    e ni furenaide kudasai
                    Don't touch the paintings please

                    V-te kure

                    kure is simply the plain form of kudasai, so it has same meaning and it's used the same way. The only difference is that it's not polite as kudasai, so it may be used only among friends or with an inferior person.

                    その話は止めてくれ
                    sono hanashi wa yamete kure
                    Stop telling that story please

                    Obviously, the negative form is B1-naide kure

                    怒らないでくれ
                    okoranaide kure
                    don't get angry please

                    There is no problem if you use V-te kure in indirect speech, cause, as always, it doesn't affect the politeness of the sentence.

                    お金を貸してくれとたのまれた
                    okane o kashite kure to tanomareta
                    He asked me to lend him some money

                    Other expression of request

                    V-te kure tamae: Used by men with inferiors
                    V-te okure: Used by parents with kids or masters with servants
                    V-te choudai: Used by women with friends or inferiors
                    V-te ne/yo: used by women with firends, by kids with relatives, among friends · close

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                    • Let's Learn Japanese Together - Lesson #23 - Imperative

                      Posted on 24 July, 2011 (3 years ago) by DottDivine · 116 views · 0 comments · 1 likes

                      Imperative is obviously used to give an order to someone else.
                      In Japan, the way you talk with others and the politeness you use is very important. So use this carefully.

                      Imperative form of the verb: B6

                      Ok, this is quite simple.. you simply have to remember how you get the B6 conjugated form and use it in a sentence.
                      You forgot? :D Read again Lesson #11 ^^

                      彼に手紙を書け
                      kare ni tegami o kake
                      Write a letter to him!

                      ここで待て
                      koko de mate
                      Wait here!

                      あのを見ろ
                      ano o ...

                      Read more (451 words more)

                      Imperative is obviously used to give an order to someone else.
                      In Japan, the way you talk with others and the politeness you use is very important. So use this carefully.

                      Imperative form of the verb: B6

                      Ok, this is quite simple.. you simply have to remember how you get the B6 conjugated form and use it in a sentence.
                      You forgot? :D Read again Lesson #11 ^^

                      彼に手紙を書け
                      kare ni tegami o kake
                      Write a letter to him!

                      ここで待て
                      koko de mate
                      Wait here!

                      あのを見ろ
                      ano o miro
                      Look that!

                      よく勉強しろ
                      yoku benkyou shiro
                      Study well!

                      Ichidan verbs and suru has an imperative literary variant.

                      V.Ichidan: -ro--->-yo
                      suru: shiro--->seyo

                      Negative imperative: B3+na

                      酒を飲んだら運転するな
                      sake o nondara unten suruna
                      If you drink alcohol, don't drive! [運転する-->unten suru-->to drive]

                      彼にとってこのケーキを作ったので食べるな
                      kare ni totte kono keeki o tsukutta no de teberu na
                      Since i did this cake for him, don't eat it!

                      Imperative form B6 is a real order so it sounds rude and impolite. So it's used only in the following cases:

                      -Men can use it talking with male friends or an inferior person adding "yo" at the end to lessen the harshness.
                      早く行けよ
                      hayaku ike yo
                      go fast!

                      あした必ずこの仕事を終えろよ
                      ashita kanarazu kono shigoto o oero yo
                      Make sure to finish this work by tomorrow [必ず-->kanarazu-->absolutely]

                      -Military orders.

                      止まれ
                      tomare
                      stop!

                      進め
                      susume
                      go ahead!

                      -In written language, for example in the questions of an exam.

                      動詞を過去形にせよ
                      doushi o kakokei ni seyo
                      Put the verb into past form

                      答えを書け
                      kotae o kake
                      write the answer

                      In indirect speech the harshness of the B6 doesn't affect the politeness of the whole sentence that is determined by the verb of the principal clause.
                      For example:
                      彼に酒は止めろといつも言っています
                      kare ni sake wa yamero to itsumo itte imasu
                      I always tell him to stop drinking alcohol

                      This is a polite sentence cause "itte imasu" is in its polite form.

                      we'll talk about indirect speech later, just remember that it's always the verb in the principal clause the determine the politeness of the sentence and not the verbs in subordinate clauses!

                      B2 + nasai

                      This structure is still imperative but a bit less harsh and rude than the simple B6. Being an imperative, is usually used only by teachers to students or parents to kids.

                      ここに座りなさい
                      koko ni suwarinasai
                      Sit here

                      早くバスに乗りなさい
                      hayaku basu ni norinasai
                      Get on the bus. fast!

                      For the negative form you can use the expression of prohibition "V-te wa ikenai"

                      座ってはいけません
                      suwatte wa ikemasen
                      Don't sit

                      ここにごみをすててはいけない
                      koko ni gomi o sutete wa ikenai
                      Don't throw your trash here

                      To lessen the harshness you can add "o" before the verb:

                      お立ちなさい
                      o tachinasai
                      Get up

                      これをお使いなさい
                      kore o o tsukainasai
                      Use this

                      B2 + tamae

                      This structure may be used by men toward an inferior

                      いつでも家へ来たまえ
                      itsudemo ie e kitamae
                      Come to my home anytime

                      ぜひあの本を読みたまえ
                      zehi ano hon o yomitamae
                      You absolutely have to read that book [ぜひ-->zehi-->absolutely]

                      Final note
                      Due to reasons of politeness, expressions of request are usually used instead of imperative expressions.
                      We'll see them in next lesson ^^ · close

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